French Revolution A) Old Regime- feudalism system from the Middle Ages; people were divided into estates- 3 social classes
1) Church (clergy)=1st estate; only pays 2%; owns 10% of land
2) Nobles=2nd estate; 2% of pop.; pays no taxes
3) Third Estate=working class
i) ~98% of pop. 3 groups:
a) Bourgeoisie: merchants & artisans; well-educated
b) Workers: cooks, servants, shop owner, etc
c) Peasants: farmers; half of income goes to nobles & church
ii) Enlightenment Ideas: equality, liberty & democracy
4) 1780s; crop failures, starvation
5) Louis XVI- King of France 1774; borrowed & spent money a LOT
i) Marie Antoinette (aka Madame Deficit)- Louis wife; spent a lot of money on gowns, jewels, etc.
ii) France=bankrupt; calls Estates-General- meeting of representatives of all three classes
a) First two estates always outvote third
B) National Assembly-Third Estate delegates/representatives
1) Vote to end abs. monarchy & begin another gov??™t
2) Tennis Court Oath- a new constitution drawn up in an indoor tennis court
3) Storming the Bastille
i) Rumors; foreign troops coming to massacre French citizens
a) Foreign troops=Louis??™s Swiss army; come to guard Paris
b) Bastille=Paris prison; attempt to steal gun powder; fall to citizens
C) Great Fear- wave of senseless panic that spread throughout France
1) Peasants rebel; break into nobles??™ houses & burn legal papers
2) Oct. 1789; women riot over price of bread; turn against king & queen; break into Versailles & demand to take king & queen to Paris
3) Aug. 1789; noblemen & clergy now = to peasants
D) Declaration of the Rights of Man- statement of revolutionary ideals the Nat. Ass. adopts
1) Guarantees equal justice, freedom of speech, religion, liberty, property, security, ???Liberty, Equality, Fraternity???
2) Olympe de Gouges- female writer who wrote rights for women; lost her head as an enemy
3) Clergy land taken away; must be elected by property owners
4) Louis & family try to escape; but postmaster recognize king & family=back to Paris
5) Legislative Assembly- new assembly; has power to create laws & approve/prevent wars
6) Radicals: sans-culottes- wage-earners, shop keepers; want stronger voice
i) Left-wing; oppose king & monarchy; wants immediate changes in gov??™t; full power
i) Centrists; want some changes in gov??™t, not a lot
8) Conservatives: Emigres- nobles who fled France
i) Right-wing; supports limited monarchy; few changes in gov??™t
1) Austria & Prussia propose Louis put back to power; Fran. declares was on Austria; Prussia joins
2) Prussia threatens to destroy France if royal fam.=hurt; rebels invade palace; murder Swiss army
i) Imprison Louis, Marie Antoinette & children
3) Rumor: Nobles will seize control in peasants absence, citizens raid prisons & murder many
4) Jacobin Club-radical club; leader-Jean Paul Marat
5) Nat. Convention; abolish monarchy & declare republic
6) Guillotine- beheading machine; king=executed
7) Great Brit., Holland, & Spain join Austria & Prussia; Fran. drafts army
F) Maximilien Robespierre- Jacobin leader; ruled with terror; Reign of Terror-1793
1) Wipe out past monarchy & nobility
2) Committee of Public Safety- Robespierre decides who is the enemy of republic & who isn??™t; people tried in morning & guillotined in afternoon
3) Everyone=afraid to defend others for fear of guillotine; 1794; Maximilien loses head; Nat. Convention draft new gov??™t
G) Napoleon Bonaparte- great & famous military genius in France
1) Appointed to lead Fran. army against Austria; win many victories
2) Horatio Nelson (Brit. Admiral) defeat Napoleon in Egypt
3) Directory losing control of people; urge Napoleon to seize power
i) Wife uses connections; legislature dissolve Directory; est. 3 consuls
4) Coup d??™etat- blow of the state
i) Sign peace agreements w/ Brit. Austria & Russia
5) Plebiscite- vote of the people; gives all power to Napoleon
i) Set up tax-collecting system; est. national bank
ii) Lycees-gov??™t-run schools; for future candidates to public office
6) sign concordat-agreement with Pope; recognize influence of church; reject control in nat. affairs
i) gov??™t appoints bishops
7) Napoleonic Code- system of laws; take away & restrict some rights
8) Crowned as emperor; puts crown on own head
9) Sells Louisiana Territory to US
10) Battle of Trafalgar- battle at Spain against Horatio Nelson; mortally wounded by sharpshooter
H) 3 Costly Mistakes
1) Continental System- blockade- forcibly closing ports; of G. Brit to prevent communication w/ others
i) Suppose to make Europe self-sufficient & destroy G. Brit eco.
ii) Brit makes own blockade; tax on neutral ships; hurts Napoleon more
2) Portugal ignoring Continental System; Napoleon invades & puts brother on throne
i) Spanish mad; puts together guerrillas-band of peasant fighters; ambush French then hide
ii) Peninsular War- war against Spain; other countries turn against French
3) Napoleon invades Russia
i) Russia practice scorched-earth policy- burning fields & slaughter livestock so enemy can??™t eat
ii) Moscow(holy city) burned b/c Russia rather burn it than surrender
a) Napoleon stays; expecting peace offer; none; too late to turn back
iii) Russia winter is strong & comes early; Fren. soldiers cold, many died
4) Empire crumbles quickly; exiled to Elba
i) Napoleon comes back; Battle of Waterloo-battle in Belgium against Britain
a) Lead by Duke of Wellington for Brit.
ii) Hundred Days- Napoleon??™s last reign; last for 100 days; exiled to St. Helena; dies there
I) Congress of Vienna- meetings in Vienna to set up goal of security & stability; fair
1) Klemens von Metternich-foreign minister of Austria
2) Brit, Russian, Prussia, Austria, & Fran. There
3) Surround Fran. w/ strong countries, restore balance of power & restore royal families
i) Don??™t want to severely punish; might rebel again
4) Legitimacy-as many rulers as possible should be restored
5) Holy Alliance- alliance between Prussia & Russia; if people revolt, will help each other
i) Countries no afraid of their people starting a revolutionI) Latin America
A) Revolution in Haiti
1) Toussaint L??™Ouverture- ex-slave; leader of Revolution of Haiti
i) agree to halt revolution if slavery ends; later turns on him & puts him in prison
2) Jean-Jacques Dessalines-Toussaint??™s general, takes up fight
i) Declares Haiti independent
3) Class pyramid: Peninsulares-men born in Spain;
i) Creoles- Spanish born in Lat. A.; best educated; wealthy; bring revolut. ideas (not welcome)
ii) Mestizos- mix European & Indian; Mullatos-Mix Eurp & Afr.; Africans; Indians
B) Latin America Revolution
1) Simon Bolivar-wealthy Creole; liberator
i) Wins Venezuela??™s independence
2) Jose de San Martin-simple modest liberator
i) Both want independence
ii) Frees Chile, meets Bolivar in Ecuador & gives him his army
iii) Lat. Am. finally wins Spanish colonies independence
1) Miguel Hidalgo- priest in a small village; educated
i) ring church bells to call for rebellion ???grito de Dolores??™; defeated
2) Jose Maria Morelos- next Mexican Revolution leader; defeated after 4 years
3) Creoles soon unite w/ lower class; Agustin de Iturbide makes peace, declares independence 1821
1) Bloodless revolution; sign petition asking King John??™s son to rule; agree
2) 1822; Brazil=independent
E) Europe changes
1) Conservatives- wealthy property owners & nobility; power to monarchs
2) Liberals- middle class business leaders 7 merchants; more power to elect
3) Radicals- lower class; drastic change; practice ideals of French Rev.
4) Nationalism- belief that greatest loyalty is to nation of people who share a common history/culture
5) Nation-state-when nations has own independent gov??™t
6) Balkans- Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey; controlled by Ottomans
i) Greece wants independence; Brit, Fran & Russia sign treaty recognizing Greece??™s indep.
7) 1830; Belgians declare indep. From Dutch
8) Many uprisings for independence spreads throughout Europe
9) France est. republic; Louis-Napoleon-nephew of Napoleon; takes title of emperor
i) Builds railroads, industrializes, helps France prosper
10) Russia; not yet modernized; still have serfs
i) Alexander II- Czar Nicholas??™s son; moves Russia towards modernization; frees serfs
1) Belief that people of single nationality should unite under single gov??™t
2) Begin to use nationalist feelings for own purpose; build states where they will have total control
3) Austria- Hungary, Ottoman split; break into nation-states
i) Giuseppe Mazzini-Italian; org. nationalist grp. ???Young Italy???
ii) Italians ask Sardinia king for leadership, Camillo di Cavour- wealthy aristocrat; prime minister
iii) Goal is to get N. Italy for Sardinia; drives Austrians out; wants S. Italy now
a) Secretly helping nationalists rebel
iv) Giuseppe Garibaldi- soldier; captures Sicily; followers Red Shirts- always wear bright red shirts
v) N&S combined, barely understand each other & both have a diff. life style
i) Calls constitutional convention; draws up liberal constitution
ii) Liberal parliament refuse Wilhelm $; Junkers(wealthy class) supports
iii) Otto von Bismarck- Junker; prime minister; master of realpolitik-politics of reality
iv) Alliance w/ Prussia & Austria; purposely messes w/ both, Seven Weeks??™ War; Austria loses
a) Prussia takes N. Germany
v) France-Prussian War
a) Messes w/ telegram, Fran. declares war on Prussia; Napoleon III is taken captive, surrender
b) Takes S. Germany; Wilhelm I crowned Kaiser- emperor
6) Romanticism-movement in art & ideas; deep interest in nature & feelings
i) Poetry, writing, stories, music change
7) Realism-literature & art trying to show life as it is, not how it should be
i) Science expands; camera invented
ii) Impressionism- painters try to give their own impression of subject
A) Industrial Revolution- increased output of machine-made goods
1) Enclosures- large fields owned by landowners; experiment to boost crops; new agriculture method, force small farmers out; seed drill
2) Crop rotation-rotating planted crops, diff. crop planted each year; only breed best sheep
3) Industrialization-process of developing machine production of goods; require:
i) Water power, iron ore, river for transportation, harbors for merchant ships
ii) Brit. has all factors of production- resources needed to produce goods; war never fought on soil
4) Spinning jenny; allows spinner to work 8 threads; shuttle; double weaving
5) Factories- large buildings w/machines to work; run on waterpower
6) Entrepreneur- person who org. & manages business; steam engine made, roads improved, railroad
i) First railroad Liverpool(Manchester; creates thousands of jobs, cheap way to transport
B) Urbanization-city building & urban areas double in pop.
1) Living conditions=bad; no plans, no codes, no drains, lots of garbage; sickness spread
2) Working conditions=bad; work 14hrs/day 6days/wk; machines are dangerous
i) Eventually better wages, shorter hours & working conditions
3) Middle class- skilled workers, professionals, wealthy farmers
4) More jobs; overuse natural resources 7 abuse environment
1) Children work in factories too, many injuries, do heavy dangerous work, waste poison river
2) Work long hours, bad conditions, child labor is cheap
D) Industrialization spreads
i) New factories, more workers(mostly young single women)
ii) New inventions; light bulb, telephone, move westward; railroad system expanded
iii) Corporation-business owned by stockholders, share profits, but not responsible for debts
i) Sneak inventions out of Brit. & other countries to Belgium, Germany, etc.
a) Ger. Send children to Eng. to learn industrial management
ii) Markets are thriving, clothing=cheaper; strengthen eco. Ties, poor countries=market for products
iii) Imperialism; policy of extending country??™s rule to other lands
1) Laissez faire- let owners of industry set working conditions; gov??™t only interfere w/ wealth
2) Adam Smith- professor; defend idea of free eco/markets
3) Capitalism- eco. system; goal is to make profits from business; Thomas Malthus & David Ricardo
i) Underclass=always poor; pop. increase faster than food supply
4) Utilitarianism- judge ideas & actions based on usefulness; promote greatest food for as many people
i) John Stuart Mill; Robert Owen-improve working conditions
5) Socialism- production owned by public; belief in progress
i) Gov??™t should plan eco. rather than depend on free-market
6) Communism- all land, factories, business owned by people; private property doesn??™t exist
i) Karl Marx- Ger. Journalist; society is always divided into warring classes; workers & employers
ii) Inspires China, Russia, Vietnam & Cuba
7) Unions- workers join together in voluntary associations
i) Collective bargaining-negotiations between workers & employers
ii) Bargain for better conditions
iii) If refuse, members strike- refuse to work; picket peacefully
iv) Skilled workers lead b/c skills give extra power
v) Factory Act of 1833; illegal to hire younger than 9yrs old;9-12yrs no more than 12hrs.
a) Women can??™t work underground; Ten Hours Act; limit work to 10hrs/day for women&kids
i) William Wilberforce; leads fight for end of slavery; Brit abolishes slaver in 1833
9) Women; fight for reforms; International Council for Women
i) Public schools made
III) Reforms & Activism
A) Reform Bill of 1832
1) Wealthy mid-class wants greater voice
i) Suffrage-right to vote extended; more people can now vote
2) Chartist movement- movement of workers who couldn??™t vote; sign petition People??™s Charter of 1838
i) Vote in secret, end prop. Requirements, pay for members
ii) Parliament rejects Chartists??™ demands; but later given, except for annual elections
3) Queen Victoria- Queen of Brit.; rules for longest time; Brit. reach height of wealth & power
i) Popular w/subjects, only a symbol, have no power
4) Women; want to vote & have more power
i) Org. reform societies & protest; Emmeline Pankhurst & daughters protest, sometimes jailed
1) Paris Commune; workers throw up barricades & block army
2) Third Republic- new system; gov??™t that doesn??™t really divide people
3) Dreyfus affair- controversy; Capt. Alfred Dreyfus accused of selling military secrets; life in prison
i) Built up by anti-Semitism-prejudice against Jews
ii) Emile Zola write letter (J??™accuse!) abt. Army covering it up; Dreyfus declared innocent
4) Zionism- Jew??™s fight/word for separate homeland
1) Upper Canada-Eng. Speaking; Lower Canada-French speaking; own assembly
i) Rebellions break out; send statesman to investigate; reunite both, French slowly come part of Eng. Culture, allow to govern themselves
2) Dominion- self-governing country in domestic affairs; but part of motherland
3) New Zealand; Maoris- New Zealand??™s people, defend land strongly; must recognize right
i) Negotiate; sign treaty, Maoris accept rule, but recognize land rights; wool producing
ii) Women have rights to vote
4) Australia; Aborginies- Australian people, little resistance
i) Colonize w/ convicts(prisons too full); penal colony- place where convicts are sent to serve
a) After freed, can buy land & settle as free men; breed sheep
ii) Want to self rule, but remain w/Brit; create parliaments; become dominions
iii) Natives eventually driven out
5) Irish; most are Catholics; law made to limit rights; Irish mad
i) Great Famine- Irish depend on potatoes; fungus ruin all crop & millions starve & die
ii) Demand for home rule- local control over internal matters only; not given
a) Eventually gets independence; N. Ireland stays
b) United Kingdom doesn??™t contain N. Ireland, Great Britain does
D) Expansion in US
1) War w/ Mexico; settlers settle in Texas-Cali; don??™t like Mexico??™s rule; revolt rule
i) US annex Texas; US capture Mexico City; Mexico cede(give up)territory to US
2) Manifest Destiny-idea that it??™s US??™s duty to rule NA from Atlantic-Pacific
i) Use to justify acts & removals of Indians
ii) Trail of Tears
3) Civil War; N. has free workers, S depend on slave labor; conflict of slavery
i) Abraham Lincoln-President; promise to end slavery; South secede-withdraw, from Union
ii) Lincoln orders rebels to be brought back; US Civil War begins; S has better military, N bigger pop., transportation, resources & factories; S surrenders
iii) Emancipation Proclamation- (1863)declaration that all slaves are free; 13th amendment
a) 14th &15th gives right to vote
iv) Segregation- separation of blacks & white begin in South
4) Immigration increases & railroads expand
1) Thomas Edison; light bulb; phonograph
2) Alexander Bell; telephone; Guglielmo Marconi; radio, use Morse Code
3) Henry Ford; automobile, assembly line- line of workers who put one piece on car as it passes by
i) Makes production faster
4) Wright Brothers; fly, aircraft
5) Mass culture- appeal of art, writing, music, etc.
i) Mass market for books, newspapers & magazines, leisure time ???weekend??™
ii) Musical halls, singers, dancers, comedians, etc. ???vaudeville??™
iii) Movies; short films; people go there on leisure times now
iv) Sports, entertainment for many soccer, cricket, etc
F) Medicine & Science
1) Pasteurization-kill germs in liquids; learn that heat kills bacteria, bacteria causes diseases
i) Now clean wounds first; more people live, vaccines made
2) Charles Darwin-biologist; challenges idea of special creation
i) Theory of evolution- species evolve; change through natural selection
ii) Gregor Mendel collects genes
i) Dmitri Mendeleev; chemist; org. Periodic Table
ii) Marie & Pierre Curie find radioactivity- mineral that releases powerful form of energy
4) Psychology- study of human mind & behavior; Ivan Pavlov; dog & food experiment
1) Treaty w/ Belgium; Leopold est. colony & force Africans to do labor for him, all of Europe want
2) Imperialism- takeover of a country w/ intent of dominating life style, eco & politics
3) Racism- belief that one race is superior to others
4) Social Darwinism- Darwin??™s theory, only the fittest survive
i) Africans don??™t have technology Europe has, so it is powerless
5) Europe builds railroads, steamers, cables; makes communication easier
i) Maxim gun-automatic machine gun; shoots 100 at a time
ii) Drug quinine; protects from mosquitoes; wars fought, Africans lose & at disadvantage
B) Berlin Conference 1884-1885- meeting where Euro. Nations split up Africa
1) Africa very rich in natural resources (copper, tin, diamonds, gold, silver); don??™t buy Euro. Goods
C) Shaka- Zulu chief; good military, fights against Euro.; successors=not as strong
1) Boers- Cutch farmers; settle in E. Indies, clash w/ Brit
i) Great Trek- Boers movement north
2) Boer War- between Brit & Boers; first modern war; Brit. wins
1) Colony- country govern internally by foreign power
2) Protectorate- country w/ internal gov??™t but under control of outside power
3) Sphere of Influence- area where outside power claims special/exclusive investment
4) Economic Imperialism- independent, less developed nations control by private business interest
5) Indirect control- to rule territory/region from outside; let region manage own, have gov??™t council
i) Some self-rule, goal=develop future leaders; Brit. & US
6) Direct Control- direct rule; foreign officials brought in; no self rule, assimilation; Fren, Ger & Portu
i) Paternalism- policy where Euro. Governs people in fatherly way, helps w/ needs, but no rights
ii) Assimilation- policy that over time, pop. will adapt French culture
iii) Association- recognize institutions & culture, but inferior to French culture
7) Maji-maji(magic water); tribe believed it would turn bullets into water; many died
8) Menelik II- Ethiopia??™s emperor; plays Italians, French & Brit. against each other
i) Battle of Adowa; against Italians; maintains independence
9) Hospitals & schools brought to Africa
i) Africans lose lots of land & independence & gets more diseases; culture breaks down, family separated
1) Fall; reforms being to fail, trouble is rising, territories gaining independence/self-rule
2) Geopolitics-interest in taking land for its location
i) Ottoman have good location for wars; Russia wants
3) Crimean War- war between Russia & Ottoman for Black Sea; Brit & Fran. join w/ Ottoman
5) Muhammad Ali; leader sent by Ottoman to govern Egypt; breaks away & gains control of Syria & Arabia
i) Reforms in military & eco.; cash crop
6) Suez canal-water way to connect Red Sea & Mediterranean; borrowed lots of $$; can??™t pay back
i) Very impt. To Brit; allows quicker access
1) Brit. takes Afghanistan away, very interested in Persia for oil
2) Tobacco made, riots & revolutionaries break out
1) Seopys-Indian soldiers
2) Jewel in the crown-Brit. most valued colony; lots of raw material
3) Buys Brit. products, est. railroad, telephones, dams, bridges, schools, etc; crop=tea, indigo, coffee & opium
4) Sepoy Mutiny- rumor that corks to gun powder is made of beef/pork; makes Indians mad; Indians resent Brit.; fight w/ Brit. Hindus & Muslims won??™t unite
5) Turning Point
i) India put under Raj- Brit. rule; promise to respect Indian states & will remain independent
H) Pacific Rim- countries that order Pacific Ocean (Philippines, Indochina)
1) Brit. takes Malaysia & Burma; encourage Chinese to immigrate to Malaysia
2) French; has Indochina; Napoleon III orders French to invade S Vietnam; gains Laos, Cambodia & N. Vietnam
3) Thailand; King Mongkut- King of Siam; maintains independence
4) US; gains Philippine, Puerto Rico & Guam during Spanish-Am. War
i) Emilio Aguinaldo- leader of Filipino nationalist; fight for independence; fight; US wins
ii) Promise to prepare for self-rule, build roads, railroads, hospitals, schools
iii) Hawaii; sugar plantations
a) Push for annexation- add territory to US
b) Queen Liliuokalani- Hawaiian ruler; takes throne, calls for constitution to increase ower; removed from power
c) Annexed to USV) Changes Around the Globe
A) Opium War – The Chinese were very self-sufficient and wouldnt accept Western advancement. Britain also bought millions of pounds of tea from China and barely imported goods. They then were able to sell Opium to the Chinese people in large quantities and by 1835, 12 million Chinese people were addicted. Because Britain refused to stop selling them the drug a war broke out.
1) 1839 – Chinas Ships were no match for British steam gunboats and cannons. Chinese Defeat.
i) This defeat lead to the Treaty of Nanjing signed in 1842 and another peace treaty in 1944.
a) Britain was given the island of Hong Kong.
b) U.S. and other foreign citizens were given extraterritorial rights. These people were exempt from Chinese law.
??? ex. If an American man killed a Chinese man, on Chinese soil, he wouldnt be charged.
B) China also had many internal problems. (huge population growth and food production not increasing, Yellow River flooding farming areas, Chinese government corrupted, people couldnt get jobs, etc.)
1) Hong Xiuquan led the Taiping Rebellion, “Great Peace”
i) Late 1840s – 1864. A peasant rebel force.
a) 1853 – 1 million people
ii) 1853 – Captured Nanjing and declared it their capital.
iii) 1864 – Qing forces, militia, British and French fought against the Taiping.
a) 20 million deaths
2) Dowager Empress Cixi (1861 – 1908) – Traditional values. Self-strengthening movement.
3) In the late 19th century foreign countries took advantage of Chinas economic, political, and military weaknesses. China became a sphere of influence – a region in which a foreign nation controlled trade and investment.
i) To make sure that other nations wouldnt divide China into colonies and shut out American trade, the U.S. declared an Open Door Policy. Chinas doors were now open to all nations.
4) Peasants and Workers frustrated. They create the Society of Harmonious Fists –> The Boxers
i) The Boxer Rebellion was a campaign against the Empresss rule and foreigner privilege.
a) The Boxers surrounded the European section of Beijing but were defeated a few months later by a multinational force of soldiers.
C) Japan was very isolated. They refused western officials.
1) However in 1853 U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry comes and scared the Japanese with the U.S.s big iron ships.
i) Out of fear the Japanese sign The Treaty of Kanagawa. And Western powers started trading at treaty ports.
2) After the Tokugawa shogun stepped down Mutsuhito reigned for 45 years, adopting new, Western ways in the Meiji era
3) Sino-Japanese War – Japan fighting China on Korean soil because China didnt obey their Hands-Off-Korea deal. China was defeated and they signed a peace treaty. **First colonies – Taiwan and Pescadores Islands
4) Russo-Japanese War – Japan and Russia fighting over Manchuria because the Russians wouldnt stay out of Korea. Japan won. Theodore Roosevelt drafted Treaty of Portsmouth.
i) Russia had to stay out of Manchuria and Korea
5) Japan attacked Korea and imposed annexation. Now it was under Japans control and they ruled harshly.
D) Latin America After Independence
1) Landowners got only wealthier; Unequal distribution
2) Political instability; caudillos – dictators.
i) Juan Vicente Gomez – ruled Venezuela for nearly 30 years. “All of Venezuela is my cattle ranch.”
ii) President Domingo Sarmiento (Argentina) – improving education but taken out of power by a caudillo.
3) The U.S. didnt want Europe to try to reconquer Latin America and wanted to trade. Monroe Doctrine
i) Cuba declared independence and fought but the Cubans gave up the fight.
ii) U.S. joined Cuban war for independence. 6 week war. Spanish-American War.
a) **U.S. got Spains last colonies! – Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines
iii) U.S. is the “Colossus of the North”
iv) Panama was a province of Columbia. But after encouraging the Panamanians to gain their independence, the U.S. got to build the Panama Canal for free. It opened in 1914 after being built for 10 years and helped with trade.
v) Roosevelt Corollary – international police power. (Actually U.S. was just spreading its influence)
E) Mexican Revolution
1) Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna- Mexican political leader; fought for Mexico??™s independence
2) Benito Juarez- liberal reformer; strongly influences politics
i) Opens law offices to everyone, not just rich
3) La Reforma- liberal reform movement; redistribute land, separation of church & state, more edu.
i) French invade Mexico; civil war lasts for 3 yrs
4) Porfirio Diaz- new caudillo; has support of military
i) Offers land, power & political favors to whoever supports him
ii) ???Order and Process???
5) Francisco Madero- educated in US & Fran; believe in democracy; calls for revolution
6) Fracisco ???Pancho??? Villa- cowboy who believes in taking from the rich & giving to the rich
7) Emiliano Zapata- Revolutionary leader; raises a strong army
i) Diaz agrees to step down
8) General Victoriano Huerta takes over; revolutionary comes back & over throws
9) New Constitution; break up large estates, state takes over land owned by church, min. age, right to strike, equal payVI) The Great War
A) Europe is feeling very uneasy. A sort of calm before the storm.
1) Unsettling feelings among European powers
i) Rise of Nationalism – Nationalistic rivalries
ii) Imperialism – Quest for colonies caused tension
iii) Growth of militarism – the policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war. The importance of war was being stressed. It made people feel patriotic but also frightened.
2) Alliances getting tangled. Otto von Bismarck, Prussian chancellor, used war to unify Germany. Wanted to isolate France.
i) Triple Alliance – Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary
ii) Treaty with Russia
a) Russia and Austria were rivals in the Balkan
3) Kaiser Wilhelm II – policy changes dramatically. Sly, deceitful, stubborn. Wanted to assert his own power. Forced Bismarck to resign.
i) Alliances fell apart.
a) Britain, France and Russia – Triple Entente
4) Balkans “The Powder Keg of Europe”
i) Balkan region, many new nations – strong nationalistic pride.
ii) Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand , heir to Austro-Hungarian throne, by a Serbian
a) All the tangled alliances came to play. Austria and Russia wouldnt negotiate. War set in motion.
B) War Consuming Europe – Chain reactions
1) Schlieffen Plan by General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen.
i) Basically Germany would quickly attack France and Russia in the event of a two-front war.
a) The troops had to go through Belgium on their way to France and invaded Belgium.
??? Outraged Britain declared war on Germany
2) Central Powers – Germany and Austria-Hungary (later joined by Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire)
Allies – Great Britain, France, Russia (later Japan and Italy)
3) War with France was on the Western Front.
i) At first there was a long stalemate but soon, trench warfare.
a) The space between the trenches was called no mans land.
4) War with Russia was on the Eastern Front. (Russians and Serbs vs. Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
i) Russia wasnt industrialized yet.
ii) The army was continually short on food, guns, ammunition, clothes, boots, and blankets.
a) Only asset – number of people.
C) War Affects the World
1) U.S. joins.
i) Germanys unrestricted submarine warfare. Attacked U.S. ships
2) WW1 becomes a total war. Countries devoted all their resources to the war.
i) Goods were short in supply, so rationing was used.
ii) Governments used propaganda to persuade the people and keep up morale and support for the war (posters were very important)
iii) Women replaced men fighting and worked a lot.
3) The Allies Win!
i) U.S. helped shift the balance of power in the Allies favor.
ii) “loss of a generation”
iii) Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungarian Empire fell.
iv) Kaiser Wilhelm forced to step down – Germany a republic
v) An armistice was signed, and fighting was stopped. WWI ended.
vi) Germany feeling bitter.
4) The Allies met at Versailles
i) “The Big Four”
a) President Woodrow Wilson of the United States
b) Georges Clemenceau of France
c) David Lloyd George of Great Britain
d) Vittorio Orlando of Italy
ii) Wilsons proposal of Fourteen Points.
a) End of secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, reduced armies and navies, changing borders and new nations
??? self-determination – people could decide what government they wanted
iii) Treaty of Versailles – June 28, 1919
a) Harsh punishments for Germany.
b) League of Nations created to keep peace.
c) Germany and Russia excluded. (Russia an outcast for withdrawal.)
d) Not well received. Many bitter feelings.
??? Countries getting less land, American public not pleased.VII) Revolution and Nationalism
A) Revolutions in Russia
1) Russian people tired of harsh, oppressive rule of czars and social inequalities.
2) Alexander III – harsh measures to wipe out revolutionaries.
i) censorship, forbade use of minority languages, Jewish persecution
a) pogroms – organized violence against Jews. (Police and soldiers stood by and watched.)
3) Czar Nicholas II refused changed.
i) His minister Sergey Witte helped push Russia forward.
a) Trans-Siberian Railway.
4) Revolutionary Movements Growing
i) Wanted industrial workers to overthrow the czar
ii) The Bolsheviks supported small number of committed revolutionaries (the Mensheviks wanted a broad base of popular support.)
a) Bolshevik leader was , Lenin.
iii) January 22, 1905: Bloody Sunday – 200, 000 people were at the palace protesting. The czar wasnt at the palace. His guards opened fire and killed 500 to 1,000 unarmed people.
a) It provoked waves of strikes and violence.
b) The czar reluctantly promised more freedom. He created the Duma: Russias first parliament.
??? He dissolved the Duma 10 weeks later.
5) The czar then dragged Russia into WWI.
i) His wife, Czarina Alexandra, ran the government while he was on the warfront.
a) She ignored his chief advisors.
ii) She instead listened to Rasputin, a “holy man” who claimed to have special healing powers and seemed to alleviate the symptoms of her sons hemophilia.
a) She allowed him to make key political decisions
6) March Revolution
i) The czar abdicated his thrown.
a) The Romanovs were murdered.
ii) Leaders of the Duma then established a provisional government (temporary govnmt.)
a) Soviets, local councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers, had more influence than the provisional government in some areas.
iii) Lenin returned to Russia
7) Lenin and the Bolsheviks seized power
i) “Peace, Land, and Bread.”
ii) Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace and took over government offices
a) Bolsheviks now in charge!
b) Distributed farmland among peasants
c) signed peace treaty with Germany
iii) Bolsheviks renamed their selves the Communist Party
a) communism – classless society
b) In actuality, the Party held all the power, not the people
B) Stalinist Russia
1) Trotsky and Stalin were both supporters of Lenins movement. When Lenin died, they became bitter rivals.
i) In a couple of years, Stalin was in total command of the Communist Party
a) Trotsky was forced into exile
ii) Stalin wanted to change the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state: the government would have control over every aspect of public and private life.
a) It appears to have a sense of security and direction for the future.
??? No democracy, freedom, reason, human dignity, and worth as an individual.
2) Stalin took complete control. Even the economy.
i) Command economy – the government makes all economic decisions.
ii) Five-Year Plan to industrialize.
a) Impossibly high quotas to increase the output of steel, coal, oil and electricity.
b) People faced severe shortages of housing, food, clothing, etc.
iii) Agricultural Revolution
a) seized peoples privately owned farms and turned them into large, government owned farms or collective farms.
??? Peasants hated this greatly. 10 million peasants died.
??? Kulaks (wealthy peasants) hated it the most. The Soviet government thought it best to eliminate them.
iv) The Great Purge – a campaign of terror
a) Trials, executions, etc.
??? Socialist realism
C) Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule
1) Nationalists Overthrow the Qing Dynasty
i) The Qing had ruled since 1644
ii) Kuomintang or Nationalist Party, led by Sun Yixian, pushed for nationalization and modernization.
a) Sun became president in 1912
b) He lacked the authority needed to rule
iii) He turned over the presidency to Yuan Shikai, a powerful general.
a) He ruled as a military dictator and when he died China was in chaos.
2) WWI = more problems.
i) Even though they helped out the allies, Japan got Chinese territories.
ii) May Fourth Movement – national movement in Beijing boycotting European imperialists and Japan
3) The Communist Party in China
i) The Soviet Union under Lenin was their model for political and economic change
ii) Mao Zedong a founder of the Chinese Communist Party.
iii) Lenin befriended China and sent military advisers and equipments
iv) Nationalists and Communists clash
v) Civil War! – Nationalists vs. Communists
a) The Long March – 6,000-mile-long journey.
b) Maos Red Army ran from the Nationalists
vi) Japan took advantage of this during this weakness and launched an invasion.
a) By 1938, Japan held control of a large part of China
D) Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia
1) WWII heightened Nationalist Activities and Feeling
i) After seeing the world, Indian soldiers wanted more self-rule
ii) Amrtsar Massacre
a) 10,000 Hindus and Muslims flocked to Amritsar to fast and pray and listen to political speeches.
b) The people were unaware that the British had banned public meetings
c) The British killed nearly 400 Indians and wounded 1200.
2) Mohandas K. Gandhi emerged as a leader
i) Mahatma “Great Soul”
ii) He developed satyagraha or truth-force. Better known as passive resistance or civil disobedience.
iii) The Salt March
a) Peaceful protest where Indian people made their own salt instead of buying it and giving money to Great Britain
b) Police beat Indians with steel-tipped clubs.
3) 135 Government of India Act – self government and limited democratic elections
4) Nationalism Spreads to Southwest Asia
i) Turkey Becomes a Republic.
a) Mustafa Kemal led the Turkish nationalists in overthrowing the last Ottoman sultan
??? He separated laws of Islam from laws of the nation
??? He abolished religious courts
??? Women gained more freedom
??“ The right to vote and hold public office
ii) Persia Becomes Iran.
iii) Saudi Arabia Keeps Islamic Traditions.VIII) Science
A) Albert Einstein- German physicist; new ideas abt. space, time, energy & matter
1) Light travels; is a constant
2) Theory of relativity- space & time can change when it is measured to relative motion
3) Isaac Newton- discovers gravity & law of motion
B) Sigmund Freud- Austrian physician, believes mine is beyond reason; part of the mind is unconscious
1) Goes for personal desires
2) Existentialism- philosophy of searching for a meaning in an uncertain world
3) Friedrich Nietzsche- German philosopher; creativity & individuality suffers from stress
1) Surrealism- painting linking dreams with real life; painters attempt to call on unconscious mind
2) Dada movement (1916-24)- style of painting, absurd & meaningless
3) Frank Lloyd Wright- architect; functionalism- reflect design on building??™s use/function
4) Jazz- new popular musical style; developed mainly by African Am.; freedom of the age
5) Women more independent & wear looser clothing
1) Prices dropped
2) 1927; Charles Lindbergh- American pilot; 33-hr solo flight, New York( Paris
1) Guglielmo Marconi- develops radio; most families own & use for news
2) Movies; motion pics now a major industry
i) Cuba, Jap, Europe, America, etc. produce movies
1) Europe took loans from US to rebuild eco.
2) Most nations now have democratic gov??™t; but little experience with it
i) Too many political parties
3) Coalition government- temporary alliance w/ parties
4) Weimar Republic- Germany??™s new gov??™t; weak from start; people blame Weimar for defeat
i) Print $ to pay back debts; money now worthless
ii) Fran & Ger. Sign treaty to never go to war against each other again
iii) Kellogg-Briand peace pact- renounce war as instrument of national policy
5) US; everyone supported on US, if US falls, everyone does
i) 3 weaknesses; uneven distribution of $$, overproduction of agriculture & lessen demand
ii) Poor families=too poor to buy goods produced & to sell; factories cut back more & more
iii) Many people buy from stockbrokers; stocks begin to crash
iv) Great Depression- 1932; US, prices, production, business, etc began to decline
v) Americans began to demand payment from Europe; raise tariffs, world trade drops
6) Brit.; National Gov??™t; pass high tariffs, increase tax, regulate currency, slow steady recovery
7) Fran; very self-sufficient; Popular Front- moderates, Socialists &Communists; pass reforms, preserve democratic gov??™t
8) Franklin D. Roosevelt- president of US during Gt. Dep.
i) Begins New Deal- program reform; public projects to provide jobs, financial help to businesses, believe gov??™t spending will create jobs; recover slowly
G) Fascism- loyalty to the state & obedience to leader
1) Dictatorship, classes, nationalism
2) Italy; Benito Mussolini- newspaper editor & politician; forms fascist Party
i) People demand King Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge; king submits
ii) Outlaws other parties, secret police, censor radio & publications
iii) Attacks Ethiopia; Ethiopia asks League of nations for help, but ignored
3) Germany; Adolf Hitler- dictator of Germany
i) Finds Nazis; Nazism-German fascism; Hitler chosen to be def Fuhrer- leader
ii) Jailed once; writes Mein Kampf- My Struggle
iii) Claims Ger. Needs more lebensraum- living space; promise to conquer E. Europe & Russia
iv) Named chancellor; demands absolute power; bans political parties
v) forms SS (Schutzstaffel; secret police); arrest & murder many
vi) wants to control every aspect of Ger. life; turns radio, literature, painting, etc to propaganda
vii) blames Jews for everything; Kristallnacht- Night of the Broken Glass
i) Militarists take over; want to restore traditional control
ii) Invades Manchuria & build mines & factories
iii) Invades China; China lead by Jiang Jieshi & Mao; takes N. China
5) Ger. Enter Rhine River; buffer zone between Ger & Fran.
i) British urge appeasement- to give in to enemy to keep peace
ii) Axis powers- alliance between Germany, Italy & Japan
6) Francisco Franco- General of Spain, Fascists; civil war breaks out; becomes dictator
7) US goes into isolationism- belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided
8) Third Reich- Hitler??™s German Empire; wants to take Czechoslovakia
9) Munich Conference- meeting between Ger., Fran, Brit, & Italy; Hitler must respect Cz. BordersIX) World War II 1939-1945
A) Nonaggression pact- Soviet Union & Ger. agreement to not attack each other publically
B) Lightening War
1) Blitzkrieg- lightening war; Hitler??™s strategy for war
2) Soviets & Ger. attack Poland together; promise Soviets land; Brit. & Fran. officially declare war
3) Phony War; Brit. & Fran. wait for Ger. to attack, no one attacks
4) Ger. attacks France; Fran. pushed back against water
i) Falls; Charles de Gaulle- French general, flees to London, sets up gov??™t-in-exile
5) Ger. attacks Brit.; Winston Churchill- British prime minister; declares Brit. will never surrender
i) Operation Sea Lion; Battle of Britain- Ger. attack on Brit; lasts for 1yr.; Hitler backs up
6) Ger & Italy attack N. Africa; Brit. fights back
i) General Erwin Rommel- ???Desert Fox??™; Hitler??™s general, forms Afrika Korps & attacks Brit.
ii) Hitler takes Balkans; Soviet union is next; Red Army=largest, but not well equipped or trained
a) Turns to Moscow, Russian winter comes; Red Army pushes Ger. out
7) Atlantic Charter- Brit & US joint declaration, can lend/lease arms to other countries
i) Hitler orders ships to be hit & sunk
1) Isoroku Yamamoto- Japan??™s naval strategist
i) Pearl Harbor- US navy port in Hawaii; attacked by Japanese & many ships sunk
ii) Jap. declares war on US; seizes Hong Kong, Malaya, Burma, etc.
2) Colonel James H. Doolittle- leader in bombing Jap.
3) Battle of Midway- battle for Midway Island; home of US airfield; US wins
4) Douglas MacArthur- general commander of Allies in pacific; island-hopping to Jap.
i) Battle of Guadalcanal- Allies vs. Jap; on Guadalcanal; Jap abandons island
D) Holocaust- mass slaughter of civilians; Jews, crippled, gypsies, Poles, mentally challenged
1) Nazis say Aryans- German people; are ???master race??™
2) Begins to persecute Jews; Kristallnacht- Nazis storm & attack Jewish homes & businesses
3) Ghettos- segregated Jew areas; Jews try to secretly keep traditions & teach
4) Final Solution- plan to quickly eliminate Jews; genocide- systematic killing of people
i) SS shoot prisoners in ditches; makes prisoners work & barely gives food
ii) Begins to build extermination camps; 1942; many many many killed
1) Attack Ger. on two fronts
2) Bernard Montgomery- takes control of Brit. forces in N. Africa
3) Dwight D. Eisenhower- American general
4) Battle of Stalingrad- Ger. vs. Russia at Stalingrad; Stalin refuses to surrender; wins
5) Allies invade France; put countries into total war; many families give much support
6) D-Day- Operation Overload; invasion of France; lead by Dwight D. Eisenhower
7) Battle of the Bulge- Allies push Ger., Ger. push Allies; Allies win
F) Unconditional Surrender
1) Hitler commits suicide; Third Reich offers unconditional surrender; victory
2) Jap. still doesn??™t give in
3) Kamikaze- Japanese suicide pilots; believes cowardly to surrender, will give up life
4) Manhattan Project; the building of the atomic bomb
i) Bombs Hiroshima & Nagasaki; Jap. surrenders
1) Europe is in ruins
2) Little water, food, no electricity, people very far away from own homes
3) Communist declines in Italy & Fran.; eco. begins to recover
4) Nuremberg Trials- trials of Nazi leaders for waging war of aggression
H) US occupy Jap.
1) MacArthur wants to be fair; demilitarization- disbands Jap. armed forces, not allowed to have army, navy, air force, etc. Only police force
2) Helps with new democracy, distributes land, increase participation, sells land
3) Emperor is now only a symbol
4) New constitution; Diet- people elect a two-house parliament; lead by prime minister