Compensation Plan for Interclean

Millicent Mcgill
14 January 2010
University of Phoenix
Dr. Kimberly Harvell
HRM/531?Career Development Plan Week Five
Compensation Plan for InterClean
Introduction
The merger at InterClean has been successfully completed. We have developed a new career development plan which included our process of job analysis, selection methods, training and mentoring program, performance appraisal and career management. Finally, we are in the process of developing an attractive compensation plan that will motivate, allow employees to reach peak performance and attract new employees. The new compensation plan will benefit individuals as well the company.
Compensation
In developing a compensation plan HR need to be well informed about trends in recruiting, compensation benefits, and employee satisfaction just to name a few. InterClean wants to encourage employees to be more innovative, productive, and committed to their work. InterClean will provide managers with as attractive incentive program that will not only benefit employees but the company as well.
Three Components of the Total Reward Package
One component is our Paid Time Off Bank. This system combines vacation days, personal days, and sick days into one package. This allows the employee flexibility to take time off with no questions asked, reduces absenteeism, improves morale, and increase productivity for the company. 50% of the employees total premiums for working overtime or unusual hours, and vacations are paid by the company for the month the overage occurred. These employees also have the option of retaining days in their bank and selling them back to the company in mid-October.
The second component is the (ESOP) Employee Stock Ownership Plan. This will enable employees to become partial owners of a company. By allowing the employee to obtain stocks will give them a sense of job security and in return making InterClean a successful company.
The third component is our on-site daycare program for children as well the adults. This family-friendly daycare program offers the state-of the-art equipment in academics as well as medical. The facility will operate twenty-four hours a day and will house trained professional in areas of care. This program also offers referral services that will find care providers using our dependent care allowances. InterClean will pay $400.00 per month for children and elderly care outside of its established facility. This program will help offset the rising cost of dependent care for the employee and reduce the lost productivity and lower absenteeism for the company. Employee Benefits and Services
Insurance (Long-term and short term disability)
Credit Union (Barksdale Federal Credit Union)
401K Plan
Retirement Benefits
Family Benefits (FMLA)
Paid time off bank (new)
Tuition reimbursement
EAP (Employee Assistance Program)
On-site Daycare for children and the elderly
Unemployment Insurance (law)
Dental and Vision
ESOP (employee stock ownership plan)
One Life to Live (wellness program)
Chaplain Services
Worker buyout Making it work
The new compensation plan will work because it will allow flexibility for employees to choose only the services that are needed. I believe my plan will be successful because it gives the employee the power to chose what plan is best for him and his family it also gives the employee power to chose what he or she wants by saving money and choosing what??™s best for team. I believe employees want to be in charge of their own plan that why in my plan the employee is giving this choice putting ownership back in the hand of the employee. One component is our

Compensation Package

As we all know a compensation package is a pivotal and incentive mechanism that can be used to the advantage of InterClean, by creating a complete and effective package our employees will work at optimal performance , the overall process is to retain and motivate our employees. In order for InterClean to have a strategic competitive advantage it is important to have and effective compensation package . The compensation package proposed to the Human Resource Department will include two vital aspects; these are direct/indirect financial and direct/indirect nonfinancial rewards. Included on the proposal is an explanation of why this package will work, it will include the benefits towards the employee and towards the company. The last two areas that will be explained are how the package will reach performance of each employee and how this package differs from that of the parent compensation plan and why it has it differences.
The first aspect of the compensation plan is the direct financial part; this can be divided into three categories. The first category of direct financial compensation is the salary, all sales employees will have a same base salary of nine dollars per hour, the second category is commissions, commissions is to be made by taking the sum of individual sales and dividing it by and established percentage (Table 1). The last category is the bonus, it is to be given out at the end of the year after the yearly total sales are added and if they surpass $500,000 employees are given a bonus in equality, and the amount of the bonus is determined by the sales manager.
Table 1
Total Sales (individual) Percentage of Commission Amount
$20,000-$35,000 3.5% Ranging from $700.00 to $1225.00.
$35,001-$49,999 7% Ranging from $2,450 to $3,500.
$50,000+ 10% $5,000.00

The second aspect of the compensation plan is the indirect financial compensation, this category has four components. The first component is the legal benefits that the employees some of these benefits are Social Security, workers compensation, paid vacations and family and medical leave, all of these were made legal by laws. The second, third, and fourth components are discretionary benefits that InterClean will provide its employees. The second component of the indirect financial compensation that InterClean is to provide its employees is a full medical plan which can either be individual or a family plan. The medical plan will also include dental and vision plans. The third component of the indirect financial part is the retirement plan and 401k plan; these plans are defined contribution plans meaning that the employer will contribute with 35 cents for each dollar deferred to the plan by the employee. The last component of the indirect financial part is the skills and development, InterClean is committed to the intellectual growth of its employees that is why skills development is part of the plan. InterClean will pay half of the tuition cost whenever the skills and learning goals are aligned with the organizational needs . Other discretionary benefits that InterClean will provide to its employees are paid birthday and paid working vacations, paid birthday refers that the employee is given a day off because it??™s his or her birthday and the company will pay the day as if the employee was working, paid working vacations refers that if by employee chooses to use his vacation hours but chooses to work he/ she will be allowed to this will be allowed every other year.
Under the U.S. Chamber of Commerce there are three categories that benefits fall and these are security and health, payments for time not worked, and employee services. Examples of security and health benefits are life insurance, disability insurance, sick leave, pension plans, sick leave, social security plans, workers??™ compensation, and severance pay just to name a few. The plan composed at InterClean is to be contributory in which the employee will share part of the cost of the premiums . Under the category of payments for time not worked the benefits that fall under it are vacation, holidays, reporting time, and personal excused absences. The last category consists of the employee services these are tuition aid, auto insurance, food services, a company car (for the sales manager), parking for its employees, child care, and flexible work arrangements. Those components mentions above are to be used by InterClean to reach peak performance in each employee, we believe that these are the most essential and those that will motivate the employee to its fullest.
The compensation package provided below will provide to be very useful it will help achieve peak performance from every employee because this compensation package is fair in all three aspects (internal, external and individual equity). The compensation package is stressed mostly on individual equity because all of the benefits that the employee can relate to, if he/she performs to the fullest they will be reward for their actions. By implementing this compensation package the benefits towards the company are that there will be low absenteeism that is because work environment if harmonious, low turnover simply because no one offers same benefits as InterClean, and employees will be highly motivated because the company reaches to the different needs an employee may have it may be higher pay or a higher chance of learning and development, and job satisfaction will be high because of the fair rewards that have been set up. The advantages pf the plan to our employees is that first they will have a peace of mind because they are sure that the company is taking care of them so they won??™t have to worry about anything just about work, and by providing individual equity the employee knows that he is being acknowledged for all that he accomplishes for the company and his self-confidence increases . Differences of compensation plan exist between Puerto Rican compensation and that of U.S. compensation the reason for this is the culture. Puerto Rican cultures is one that wants to be acknowledge for what they have done people like the recognition this helps their esteem and confidence to do the work effectively. A very simple difference between compensations is the Christmas bonus in Puerto Rico that is required by law meanwhile in the U.S. it lay on the hands of the company; some differences are because of the laws that have been established. Another example are the holidays that Puerto Rico celebrates this is influences by Spanish rule, meaning that Puerto Rico is one the leading countries that provides holidays to all of the employees in short what differentiates between compensation plans is the culture.

History – to What Extend Was the Fall of the Berlin Wall Caused by Public Unrest

123 History CourseworkTo what extend was the fall of the Berlin Wall caused by public outragesContents Page:A) Plan of investigation ??“ Page 3B) Summary of evidence ??“ Page 4-6C) Evaluation of sources ??“ Page 7D) Analysis ??“ Page 8E) Conclusion ??“ Page 9F) List of sources ??“ Page 101. Plan of investigation: The fall of the Berlin Wall was a major historical event not only for the German public but for world democracy also. The Berlin Wall divided Berlin from 13th August 1961 to 9th November 1989. During this time people living in East Berlin were not allowed to enter West Berlin, families were separated for Years and lived in a total surveillance state. The investigation assesses the significance of public demonstration for the fall of the Berlin Wall. In order to evaluate the significance of the public to the fall of the Berlin Wall, the investigation evaluates the opening of the boarders to other eastern countries like Hungary and the demonstrations in eastern Germany. The sources I used for the investigation are two German magazines based on the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall. ???Stern Extra, Vor 20 Jahren: So fiel die Mauer??? and ???Focus, 9. November 1989…und so fiel die Mauer??? and an other source is ???The Fontana History of Germany 1918-1990 The Divided Nation??? by Mary Fulbrook. The magazines are based on the publics unrest and the and on the the political instability during this time and how it finally led to the fall of the Berlin Wall. My other source is a textbook written 1991 and therefore shortly after the fall. These sources will then be evaluated for their origins, purposes, values and limitations. However, the investigation does neither include the construction of the Berlin Wall nor the problems Germany had to face after its fall on the 9th November 1989.2. Summary of Evidence: The Berlin Wall was a concrete wall built by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that completely encircled West Berlin. This wall separated West Berlin from East Germany and East Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Both of the borders came to symbolize the Iron Curtain between Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc.[1] Political instability in the USSR under Gorbachev, and the rise of public unrest led to the fall of the Berlin Wall within a few weeks. The 9th November opened the way to unity for East Germany and East Berlin to the Western world.[2] Since the 4th September 1989, every Monday, everywhere in East Germany, demonstration where held to protest against the bad standard of living and to show their anger over the East German surveillance state.[3] On the 9th October 1989 in Leipzig, however, Erich Honecker decides to suppress the demonstration, which led to the first act of violence for a long time against the citizens of East Germany. The, 77 year old, party leader of the ruling SED in East Germany ordered the police to ???Stop riots once and for all???.[4] One week later on the 16th October 1989, 120000 people came together in Leipzig to demonstrate peacefully. The government did not trust the demonstrators and their peaceful way, and sent in 3100 soldiers to protect the city.[5] They should only be allowed to use violence this time, if any of the Stasi or SED buildings were attacked. Fortunately, there was no need for violence. Uwe Schwabe an important initiator for the peaceful revolution told the demonstrators: ???We just have one chance, if we stay demonstrating on the streets and dont let us frighten.???[6] People from now on shouted ???Wir sind das Volk!??? ??? We are the people!??? The communist governments in Eastern Europe started to become more democratic when Gorbachev was the Soviet leader from 1985. With the integration of the ???Perestroika??? more democratic elements could be found in communist countries. On the 27th June 1989, Hungarys foreign minister Gyula Horn and Austrias
vice chancellor Alois Mock were the first ones to carve holes into the the Iron Curtain. Both cut the barbed wire fence on the boarders. On the 19th August 1989 over 600 people crossed the boarder from Hungary to Austria. Which was the biggest stampede since the construction of the Berlin Wall.[7] In August the embassies of West Germany had to close in Prague and Budapest because over 300 citizens of the German Democratic Republic wanted to force their departure to West Germany. Thousand of people were camping in front of the Embassies.[8] In August 1989 over 21000 people made it through Hungary over the boarder to Austria. Because of too many emigrants, Hungary closed the boarder temporary but opened it again on the 11th September, at midnight. In the next three days more then 15000 people left the GDR and went on the journey to West Germany. Until the 30th September over 4000 people were camping in front of the West German embassy in Prague, when finally Federal Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher talked from the balcony of the embassy to the people. ???We came to you, to tell you that today your departure will be possible from now on.???[9] The political situation in the GDR got worse and worse. On the 23rd of October more than 300,000 people came together in Leipzig to protest, Hans Modrow said in an interview ???…these events now will lead to a revolutionary change in the German Democratic Republic.???[10] On the 6th November the last Monday-demonstration took place before the final fall of the Berlin Wall. In Leipzig over 500000 people demonstrate and shout out loud ???The wall must go!???[11] The Government of the GDR gets into even more pressure when Pragues Government threatened to close the boarder again. They SED, the ruling party, decided to create a new travel policy which they hoped would release pressure from the public. On the 9th November Gunter Schabowski was given the order to talk to the press about the new policy. It contained that ???private trips to foreign countries are allowed without showing of requirements.???[12]just a visa was needed which should be given immediately at the boarder. At 18:00 oclock he talked to the press about the new policies, himself wondering what has been decided. At 19:00 oclock, Ricardo Ehrman from the Italian press agency asked ???When does this policy become effective???[13] Schabowski replied spluttering: ???As far as I know,…it will eventuate prompt, immediately.??? What he did not know was that this conference was broadcasted live. Masses of people started running to the wall, demanding to let them
enter West Berlin, nobody was allowed to enter till 23:00 oclock when over 40000 people where crowded in front of the Berlin Wall shouting. At 23:30 oclock the order came to open the boarders, to let everybody enter West Berlin. [14]The Berlin Wall was finally destroyed.3. Evaluation of Sources: ???Stern Extra, Vor 20 Jahren: So fiel die Mauer??? by Werner Mathes and ???Focus, 9. November 1989…und so fiel die Mauer??? by Alexander Wendt are two German magazines published in October 2009 for the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall. Both magazines show the history of Berlin, Germany, families and individuals who suffered of the surveillance state. The magazines are very popular in Germany, especially for the intellectual public. Their purpose is to educate the reader about the happenings during the years 1989 and 1990 and to show ???Germanys way to freedom???[15] by showing individual stories, and illustrations for the contrast from before and after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The value of these magazines is the advantage of hindsight. Both were written in 2009 and provide the reader with the most basic information without going in too much detail. This shows the limitations of both since they are just magazines they do not offer as much many information as a textbook. Also the texts are not judged and no interpretation is made. ???The Fontana History of Germany 1918-1990 The Divided Nation??? by Mary Fulbrook, is an English textbook. It was published in 1991. It was written shortly after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the reunion of Germany, which leads us to the limitations of this source. Because it was written so short after the events it does not have the advantage of hindsight. However, the books values lies in the fact that it provides deep detailed information about the events during this time. It is written very objectively and does not focus on stories of families and their suffering under the East German surveillance state. The books purpose is to inform and educate the reader.4. Analysis: The public unrest in the cause of the fall of the Berlin Wall can be seen as very important factor, since masses of people demonstrated every week till the final opening of the boarders. Every Monday since the 4th September 1989, people went on the streets demonstrating for their rights and for the fall of the Berlin Wall. When on the 9th October violence was used for the first time the will of the people came finally through. More and more people went on the streets until nearly 1000000 demonstrators came together in the whole of East Germany. However, it can also be said that the downfall of the GDR was already foreseen since there was an huge instability in the Government. When Hungary first opened its boarders to Austria ten thousands of people fled from GDR. This can also be seen as a public unrest, as thousands of people were camping in front of the German embassy, waiting for their departure. On the other hand it can be said that that public unrest was not a cause for the fall of the Berlin Wall since it was planed from the beginning by the Hungarian government to open the boarders. At the end of the day, public unrest was a huge factor, which put an enormous
pressure on the government. This and the instability within the ruling party led finally to the fall of the Berlin Wall.5. Conclusion: In 1989, Eastern Europe was shaken by a series of revolutions, starting in Poland and Hungary, to the German Democratic Republic. The East German revolution inaugurated a process which only a few months earlier would have seemed quite unimaginable.[16] To conclude this investigation it can be said that both, the public unrest and the political instability led to the fall of the Berlin Wall. Though one would have not happened without the other. If there was not any violence in the Monday Demonstrations on the 7th October in East Germany there would not have been such a big wave of public unrest. However, with the opening of the boarders to Hungary the people in East Germany saw a opportunity which they thought was unique. With the pressure coming from the citizens, the already down falling communist government influenced by the USSR, broke apart. The will of the people finally came through on the 9th November 1989 when Gunter Schabowski, a member of the politburo, announced the new travel policies which allowed the people to travel to West Berlin and West Germany without waiting for long. This was the first time something like this happened. After 28 years, people where finally allowed to visit their families, friends and relatives.Word Count: 18536. Bibliography:
Stern Extra, Vor 20 Jahren: So fiel die Mauer (2009)
Focus 9. November 1989…und dann fiel die Mauer (2009)
Wikipedia.org ??“ Berlin Wall
Jugendopposition.de
The Fontana History of Germany. 1918 -1990 The Divided Nation (Mary Fulbrook) (1991)
———————–
[1] Wikipedia.org ??“ Berlin Wall
[2] Focus ??“ 9. November 1989…und dann fiel die Mauer. Page 6
[3] Focus ??“ 9. November 1989…und dann fiel die Mauer. Page 44
[4] Focus ??“ 9. November 1989…und dann fiel die Mauer. Page 46 Letter to ???the first Bezirkssekretar.
[5] Stern Extra ??“ Vor 20 Jahren: So fiel die Mauer. Page 56
[6] Jugendopposition.de ??“ Uwe Schwabe
[7] Stern Extra ??“ Vor 20 Jahren: So fiel die Mauer. Page 35
[8] Stern Extra ??“ Vor 20 Jahren: So fiel die Mauer. Page 31
[9] Focus ??“ 9. November 1989…und dann fiel die Mauer. Page 44 ??“ Part of the speech of Federal Foreign Minster Hans-Dietrich Genscher on the 30th September 1989.
[10] Stern Extra ??“ Vor 20 Jahren: So fiel die Mauer. Page 38 ??“ Interview with Hans Modrow about the demonstrations in the GDR before the fall of the Berlin Wall
[11] Stern Extra ??“ Vor 20 Jahren: So fiel die Mauer. Page 35
[12] Stern Extra ??“ Vor 20 Jahren: So fiel die Mauer. Page 36
[13] Stern Extra ??“ Vor 20 Jahren: So fiel die Mauer. Page 50 ??“ Parts of the press conference on the 9th November
[14] Focus ??“ 9. November 1989…und dann fiel die Mauer. Page 36
[15] Focus ??“ 9. November 1989…und dann fiel die Mauer. Page 6
[16] Germany 1918-1990 The Divided Nation ??“ Page 318

Compensation Career Development Plan

Career Development Plan IVMariam Ibrahim
HRM/531
November 15, 2010
Tracey DurdenTo: Humane Resources Department
From: Mariam Ibrahim
Date: November 15, 2010
Re: New Compensation Plan As we move forward with the merger between InterClean and EnviroTech speaking on behalf of my team, we came out with a new compensation plan that will motivate our employees to improve their performance. I believe that this merger obtain the company with varies advantages. This memo will outline the plan, which includes the details regarding the process. The two types of compensation structures are financial and non-financial reward systems. The financial reward system includes direct pay such as salary or indirect pay such as benefits. The non-financial reward system includes physiological rewards such as recognition from the supervisor or team members (Cascio, 2006) The employees will have a base salary of minimum wage and the commission earned will be included. Our commission system will give the employees the motivation to improve their sales skills, as the pay will increase each time they will make a sale or a deal. Inside and outside sales teams will cooperate to discover new skills methods as they enhance these skills by experiencing different techniques. For that reason their pay will be merit-pay system while using the non-financial rewarding system for an increase in motivation. As inside sales team doesn??™t sustain sales on regular basis, they will be compensated by annual raises and other incentives (vacations, computers, a basketball match between two teams, etc.) when the company achieves the sales goal each month. This way all team members will be treated fairly, as a result the employees will believe that the rewards are obtainable. As to have an effective incentive system, we thought of using the merit-pay systems. According to Cascio (2006), this plan may not work for many reasons such as the incentive value of the reward offered is too low, the link between performance and rewards is weak, supervisors often resist performance appraisal, union contracts influence pay-for-performance decisions within and between organizations, and the annuity problem. However, this system will work for the company as the humane resources will place some guidelines for effective merit-pay system such as establishing high standards of performance, developing accurate performance appraisal systems, training supervisors the mechanics of performance appraisal and giving the feedback to subordinates, attaching rewards closely to performance and will use a wide range of increases meaningful (Cascio, 2006). There will be a standard benefits the employee will initially receive; health insurance with employee share of cost, 401K match, 14 days paid vacation and 10 days of sick leave. After the employee reaches a certain level of rewards, he/she can trade in with a security and health benefits he/she wants as a reward of his/her efforts. The components of the reward packages will be clearly communicated and written for the employees. The main responsibility of the humane resources department is to inform the employees of their benefits and update them with any new changes. Employees must have a clear idea of their options and benefits so as to avoid any confusion or misunderstandings. This compensation benefits will motivate the employees to earn points so as to gain their needs, also they will want to improve their performance. We provide these benefits to ensure that the employees feel appreciated and we value their efforts, in addition to frequent workshops and trainings to improve skills and ensure they learn new techniques in the market. Managers/Supervisors should make sure that they give the employees the extrinsic and intrinsic rewards so as to increase the motivation. The extrinsic rewards aren??™t always available however the intrinsic can be available at any time with no cost. As the employees earn more points and rewards the more they will be satisfied, the humane resources should develop new competitions and new rewards to keep them motivated and eager to enhance their career. We believe that informal meeting can be managed to discuss concerns and new ideas, by voting the employees will choose their benefits. My team and I believe that this compensation plan will work if team members cooperate to maintain a positive environment in the work place in addition when they observe that they are in charge of their benefits, they will be comfortable to retain their top performance. The advantages the company is gaining from the merger are tremendous; to maintain the maximum benefits from this change the employees must have positive attitude, and be willing to do their best to achieve their goals. The company must plan, organize, and monitor the morale productivity. Supervisors should be supportive and willing to guide their teams into a new level of performance. At this time of transition, the supervisors need to create a healthy work environment that makes everyone comfortable with his/her new position. References
??? Cascio, W. (2006). Performance Management. In Workplace Training (7th ed., pp. 326 ??“ 371). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Historys Greatest Conduits Shaping Globalization

Argumentative Essay
The World before the Internet: History??™s Greatest Conduits Shaping Globalization Globalization is the new catchphrase commonly used by government, business and the media outlet to describe the increased speed in which the ???world connects markets, finance, technology and telecommunications??? [ (Friedman 2000) ]. Theorists describe globalization as a living and breathing entity with sovereign power over the world??™s cultural, economic and political state. Its ability to connect individuals instantaneously through popular social mediums as Facebook, email, and smart phones, add to the public??™s ???rock star ???infatuation. This complex ???super power??? continually shapes the financial and economic markets by allowing smaller countries, new businesses and individuals get a piece of the pie. On the downside, this phenomenon opens the door to new threats such as super viruses, complex terrorist organizations and negative social ideals. Thomas Friedman, New York Times columnist and prize winning author, identifies integration as the main characteristic of the globalization system. He further states, ???Now all your threats and opportunities tend to flow from who you??™re connected to and it is symbolized by a single word, The Web??? [ (Friedman 2000) ].
Although the internet is the conduit that defines globalization in today??™s modern world,
history shows the impact of influential conduits that defined globalization in previous centuries. The Web is not as unique as Friedman made it out to be. Many theorists and historians claim the Silk Road or Silk Route as the first world enabler of globalization. This ancient route ???connected vast lands into a trade network that spread goods, beliefs, and technologies far from their areas of origin. Trade along the Silk Road began around 200 BCE and continued on a significant scale until the sixteenth century CE???. [ (University n.d.) ]. These trading routes connected East Asia to the Mediterranean, linking China to the Roman Empire. Today??™s governments, agencies and individuals attempt to protect the Internet??™s travel of information as the Silk Road travelers reshaped alliances between countries, and military forces to protect their economic, cultural and technological interests. In addition, Soldiers lost their lives to defend this conduit to maintain the prosperity and power of Chinese dynasties. Mongolian leader Kublai Khan established diplomacy with the west when he appointed Venetian merchant traveler, Marco Polo to his court for 17 years. Marco Polo??™s documentaries of Chinese Culture opened a new door to the west, whose inhabitants had minimal knowledge of this intriguing civilization. The Chinese empires experienced significant growth due to increased trade with worlds that now included an expanded economic system. The Romans paid high prices for the purchase of silk resulting in huge profits for the Chinese.
The Globalization of culture via the Silk Road constructed a bridge of enlightenment integrating Asia with Europe. Missionary expeditions resulted in the development of newly established religious groups containing elements of several disciplines including Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Manichaeism and ancient Greek. Buddhism traveled through the Silk Road from India and is now one of the top 3 religions in China.
The last point of discussion on globalization through the Silk Road is the technology impact. As I previously pointed out, the Romans were obsessed with Silk. They were enamored by this delicate fabric and could not get enough of it. The Han Dynasty (206 BC??“220 AD), in a showing of early capitalism, implemented one of today??™s supply and demand business strategies: they monopolized the market by keeping the silk production technology a secret. Notably, the Chinese provided revolutionary inventions to the west: paper making, printing, compass, gun powder and ultimately silk making [ (Chinese Travel Guide.com n.d.) ]
By the end of the 14th century, the Silk Road fell to its demise as a road less traveled. A new conduit took over the role of shaping globalization. Maritime travel enabled globalization from the 14th -19th centuries. For the purpose of this paper I define Maritime travel in the scope of sea exploration, economics and trade. Like the Silk Road, Maritime travel expanded globalization from Europe to the other continents. Ships traveled farther, faster and interconnected more culture, economics and political societies. The exploration, discovery and colonization of America continue to display the effects of multi-cultural exchange. We have one of the most diverse countries in the world. Other notable conduits enhancing globalization include telecommunications enabling people all over the world to connect without traveling.
Modern day globalization is characterized by the Internet and advanced technologies enabling people to connect faster, and reach farther than ever before. It clearly has the ???it??? factor that has the world??™s attention. It is typical for Societies to focus on the now when they haven??™t studied the past. History shows innovative or ???super star??? conduits that shaped and influenced the world since the beginning of the Silk Road. The Silk Road is arguably the world??™s first integrator of globalization. One can only imagine the travelers on the Silk Road, many of whom were of the same groups that travel the Web: traders, businessmen, military, state leaders and individuals searching for excitement, adventure and opportunity in a new land. The experiences on the road traveled opened doors to economic increase, exchange in beliefs, social division, inclusion, and conflict of interests and ultimately an exposure and reality that the world is greater that the space in which we live. When we understand where we??™ve been, we can appreciate where we are and ultimately dream about where we will be in the future. Envision space as the next conduit of globalization in the future. Imagine a platform to integrate culture, economies and information to unknown civilizations. I wonder if these descendents will acknowledge and the Internet??™s role in shaping globalization.
Works Cited
Chinese Travel Guide.com. www.chinesetravelguide.com.
Friedman, Thomas. “National Strategies and Capabilities for a Changing World: Globilization and National Security.” 31st Annual IFPA??“Fletcher Conference on National Security and Policy. Washington, D.C., : Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, November 15, 2000.
University, Stanford. Along the Silk Road-Spice. (accessed June 9, 2012).

Compensation and Benefits Plan

Compensation and Benefits Plan
Southwest Airlines Co. (SWA) is a company known for its fun-loving culture as well as ???sit anywhere you like??? and ???bags fly free??? slogans. Southwest Airlines is one of the nation??™s leading US Airlines with 38 straight profitable years. The company has a unique strategy in the areas of recruitment, hiring, selecting and training personnel who will be a good fit for the company. Their compensation packages to their employees appear by some, to be second to none in the airline industry. The focus of this paper will be Southwest??™s compensation strategy and how it works or doesn??™t work for this company.
Current Compensation Strategy and Benefits
The broad objective of the design of compensation programs (i.e., direct as well as indirect compensation) is to integrate salary and benefits into a package that will encourage the achievement of an organization??™s goals. In all cases, considerations of adequacy, equity, cost control, and balance should guide decision-making in the context of a total compensation strategy. (Cascio, 2010, p. 470)
Southwest Airlines provides standard benefits that are common to most businesses
(Benefits 2012). This includes medical, dental, vision, and health coverage, with additional coverage package options for family members (Benefits, 2012). Southwest provides time-off, dependent care spending accounts, long-term care disability insurance, and a 401(k) retirement savings plan. Less common benefits are profit sharing and stock purchase plans. Unique benefits are space-available free flying privileges.
Profit-sharing is one way of linking compensation strategy to business strategy. Southwest??™s profit sharing program is designed to encourage employees to feel like they own the place. Southwest encourages creativity and innovations from employees that will save time and
money. Employees are allowed to share in those profits, which encourages workers to apply
themselves. Such ideas include the ticketless travel idea and a determination by employees to
speed the turnaround times.
Mission, Values and Goals
The Mission of Southwest Airlines is dedication to the highest quality of customer service delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride and Company spirit. (Mission Statement, 2012) You can see this practically every time you board a Southwest Flight. Friendly flight attendants greeting you at the door, and pilots that brief you with a different tone in their voice than the average pilot.
Southwest??™s vision is to expand our locations both domestic and overseas by being the largest and most profitable airline company to achieve both short and long-haul carriers efficiently and with low cost. Also to be an airline carrier that has the most productive workforce to guarantee the best flight possible for each and every passenger.
Southwest??™s values are: VALUE 1: Work should be fun…it can be play…enjoy it.
VALUE 2: Work is important…dont spoil it with seriousness. VALUE 3: People are
important….each one makes a difference. (Quick, 1992, Vol 21, Issue 2)
Goals to achieve Southwest success are: #1 in low costs with our Warrior Spirit, #1 in Customer satisfaction with our Servant??™s Hearts, and #1 in Employee SPIRIT with our Fun-LUVing attitudes. (Southwest Airlines Engagement and Recognition, 2011)
The Overall Picture
Alignment. In looking at the organization, I can see that the mission, values and goals line up with their compensation strategy in some aspects. The fun loving atmosphere that you see when you board a Southwest jet is one example of the warmth and friendliness of almost every employee. As they are written, these areas give an overall picture of Southwest Airlines and how their employees enjoy doing what they do. Employees have good compensation plans that take care of themselves and their families. When interviewing a friend of mine, Mike Sovitsky, who has been a Southwest Pilot for approximately 4 years, and who just had a baby girl, states that he feels ???very fortunate??? to have the benefits he does. This allows him to flex his schedule to be able to spend more time with his newborn and his wife. (M. A. Sovitsky, personal communication, October 27, 2012). 89% of employees seem to be very satisfied with the company and its benefits. (“Southwest Reviews,” 2012) There are however, some areas that Southwest should improve upon in the future. For example, Southwest??™s pay is one of the lowest, and raises are not consistent. This is mainly in part to the close relationship that management has with the union. It also appears that what type of personality you have helps you get hired and promoted in the company versus in some aspects the way you perform your job.
Organizational Culture. Southwest Airlines compensation strategy has successfully supported its organizational culture. Organizations have a well-defined culture founded on a set of core values and basic assumptions. This is also true for Southwest Airlines??”at its core are the
three values of humor, altruism, and “luv”??”and, for Southwest Airlines, this has been true
from day one. The organizations culture can be the vehicle through which individuals are able to better manage or overcome the challenges of the work environment and the industry in
which they operate. (Quick, 1992, p. 50) Southwest Airlines is able to do this very well, by offering their employees the flexibility to be able to do what they do, and do it with an enthuse that makes work ???fun???.
The Future. Southwest Airlines has a very bright future ahead of them. With other airlines dropping in popularity due to increasing prices, Southwest appears by all accounts to be growing in popularity. Its employees, even though they are not the highest paid in the business, love what they do, and make everyone else feel that way too. I see little that they need to improve upon, except for possibly increasing salaries and improving on healthcare benefits to be competitive with other companies.
In closing, Southwest airlines have a compensation plan that has a proven track record. Its employees seem to by all accounts enjoy the benefits that they receive, hence a very high employee satisfaction rating. Employees who are happy due to the benefits that they receive are more apt to stay in that company versus finding employee elsewhere. The mission, values and goals are in line with the Southwest is as a company, which strengthens its overall worth,References
Cascio, W. F. (2010). Managing Human Resources (8th ed.). [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Retrieved from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader.aspx
Engagement and Recognition. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.southwestonereport.com/2011/#!/people/employees/engagement-and-recognition
Quick, J. C. (1992). Organizational Dynamics. In Herb??™s Hand at Southwest Airlines (pp. 45-56). [https://portal.phoenix.edu/library.html]. Retrieved from https://portal.phoenix.edu/library.html
Southwest Airlines Reviews. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.glassdoor.com/Reviews/Southwest-Airlines-Reviews-E611.htmlistFilter=BPTW2012
The Mission of Southwest Airlines. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.southwest.com/about_swa/mission.html

History Review

French Revolution A) Old Regime- feudalism system from the Middle Ages; people were divided into estates- 3 social classes
1) Church (clergy)=1st estate; only pays 2%; owns 10% of land
2) Nobles=2nd estate; 2% of pop.; pays no taxes
3) Third Estate=working class
i) ~98% of pop. 3 groups:
a) Bourgeoisie: merchants & artisans; well-educated
b) Workers: cooks, servants, shop owner, etc
c) Peasants: farmers; half of income goes to nobles & church
ii) Enlightenment Ideas: equality, liberty & democracy
4) 1780s; crop failures, starvation
5) Louis XVI- King of France 1774; borrowed & spent money a LOT
i) Marie Antoinette (aka Madame Deficit)- Louis wife; spent a lot of money on gowns, jewels, etc.
ii) France=bankrupt; calls Estates-General- meeting of representatives of all three classes
a) First two estates always outvote third
B) National Assembly-Third Estate delegates/representatives
1) Vote to end abs. monarchy & begin another gov??™t
2) Tennis Court Oath- a new constitution drawn up in an indoor tennis court
3) Storming the Bastille
i) Rumors; foreign troops coming to massacre French citizens
a) Foreign troops=Louis??™s Swiss army; come to guard Paris
b) Bastille=Paris prison; attempt to steal gun powder; fall to citizens
C) Great Fear- wave of senseless panic that spread throughout France
1) Peasants rebel; break into nobles??™ houses & burn legal papers
2) Oct. 1789; women riot over price of bread; turn against king & queen; break into Versailles & demand to take king & queen to Paris
3) Aug. 1789; noblemen & clergy now = to peasants
D) Declaration of the Rights of Man- statement of revolutionary ideals the Nat. Ass. adopts
1) Guarantees equal justice, freedom of speech, religion, liberty, property, security, ???Liberty, Equality, Fraternity???
2) Olympe de Gouges- female writer who wrote rights for women; lost her head as an enemy
3) Clergy land taken away; must be elected by property owners
4) Louis & family try to escape; but postmaster recognize king & family=back to Paris
5) Legislative Assembly- new assembly; has power to create laws & approve/prevent wars
6) Radicals: sans-culottes- wage-earners, shop keepers; want stronger voice
i) Left-wing; oppose king & monarchy; wants immediate changes in gov??™t; full power
7) Moderates:
i) Centrists; want some changes in gov??™t, not a lot
8) Conservatives: Emigres- nobles who fled France
i) Right-wing; supports limited monarchy; few changes in gov??™t
E) War
1) Austria & Prussia propose Louis put back to power; Fran. declares was on Austria; Prussia joins
2) Prussia threatens to destroy France if royal fam.=hurt; rebels invade palace; murder Swiss army
i) Imprison Louis, Marie Antoinette & children
3) Rumor: Nobles will seize control in peasants absence, citizens raid prisons & murder many
4) Jacobin Club-radical club; leader-Jean Paul Marat
5) Nat. Convention; abolish monarchy & declare republic
6) Guillotine- beheading machine; king=executed
7) Great Brit., Holland, & Spain join Austria & Prussia; Fran. drafts army
F) Maximilien Robespierre- Jacobin leader; ruled with terror; Reign of Terror-1793
1) Wipe out past monarchy & nobility
2) Committee of Public Safety- Robespierre decides who is the enemy of republic & who isn??™t; people tried in morning & guillotined in afternoon
3) Everyone=afraid to defend others for fear of guillotine; 1794; Maximilien loses head; Nat. Convention draft new gov??™t
G) Napoleon Bonaparte- great & famous military genius in France
1) Appointed to lead Fran. army against Austria; win many victories
2) Horatio Nelson (Brit. Admiral) defeat Napoleon in Egypt
3) Directory losing control of people; urge Napoleon to seize power
i) Wife uses connections; legislature dissolve Directory; est. 3 consuls
4) Coup d??™etat- blow of the state
i) Sign peace agreements w/ Brit. Austria & Russia
5) Plebiscite- vote of the people; gives all power to Napoleon
i) Set up tax-collecting system; est. national bank
ii) Lycees-gov??™t-run schools; for future candidates to public office
6) sign concordat-agreement with Pope; recognize influence of church; reject control in nat. affairs
i) gov??™t appoints bishops
7) Napoleonic Code- system of laws; take away & restrict some rights
8) Crowned as emperor; puts crown on own head
9) Sells Louisiana Territory to US
10) Battle of Trafalgar- battle at Spain against Horatio Nelson; mortally wounded by sharpshooter
H) 3 Costly Mistakes
1) Continental System- blockade- forcibly closing ports; of G. Brit to prevent communication w/ others
i) Suppose to make Europe self-sufficient & destroy G. Brit eco.
ii) Brit makes own blockade; tax on neutral ships; hurts Napoleon more
2) Portugal ignoring Continental System; Napoleon invades & puts brother on throne
i) Spanish mad; puts together guerrillas-band of peasant fighters; ambush French then hide
ii) Peninsular War- war against Spain; other countries turn against French
3) Napoleon invades Russia
i) Russia practice scorched-earth policy- burning fields & slaughter livestock so enemy can??™t eat
ii) Moscow(holy city) burned b/c Russia rather burn it than surrender
a) Napoleon stays; expecting peace offer; none; too late to turn back
iii) Russia winter is strong & comes early; Fren. soldiers cold, many died
4) Empire crumbles quickly; exiled to Elba
i) Napoleon comes back; Battle of Waterloo-battle in Belgium against Britain
a) Lead by Duke of Wellington for Brit.
ii) Hundred Days- Napoleon??™s last reign; last for 100 days; exiled to St. Helena; dies there
I) Congress of Vienna- meetings in Vienna to set up goal of security & stability; fair
1) Klemens von Metternich-foreign minister of Austria
2) Brit, Russian, Prussia, Austria, & Fran. There
3) Surround Fran. w/ strong countries, restore balance of power & restore royal families
i) Don??™t want to severely punish; might rebel again
4) Legitimacy-as many rulers as possible should be restored
5) Holy Alliance- alliance between Prussia & Russia; if people revolt, will help each other
i) Countries no afraid of their people starting a revolutionI) Latin America
A) Revolution in Haiti
1) Toussaint L??™Ouverture- ex-slave; leader of Revolution of Haiti
i) agree to halt revolution if slavery ends; later turns on him & puts him in prison
2) Jean-Jacques Dessalines-Toussaint??™s general, takes up fight
i) Declares Haiti independent
3) Class pyramid: Peninsulares-men born in Spain;
i) Creoles- Spanish born in Lat. A.; best educated; wealthy; bring revolut. ideas (not welcome)
ii) Mestizos- mix European & Indian; Mullatos-Mix Eurp & Afr.; Africans; Indians
B) Latin America Revolution
1) Simon Bolivar-wealthy Creole; liberator
i) Wins Venezuela??™s independence
2) Jose de San Martin-simple modest liberator
i) Both want independence
ii) Frees Chile, meets Bolivar in Ecuador & gives him his army
iii) Lat. Am. finally wins Spanish colonies independence
C) Mexico
1) Miguel Hidalgo- priest in a small village; educated
i) ring church bells to call for rebellion ???grito de Dolores??™; defeated
2) Jose Maria Morelos- next Mexican Revolution leader; defeated after 4 years
3) Creoles soon unite w/ lower class; Agustin de Iturbide makes peace, declares independence 1821
D) Brazil
1) Bloodless revolution; sign petition asking King John??™s son to rule; agree
2) 1822; Brazil=independent
E) Europe changes
1) Conservatives- wealthy property owners & nobility; power to monarchs
2) Liberals- middle class business leaders 7 merchants; more power to elect
3) Radicals- lower class; drastic change; practice ideals of French Rev.
4) Nationalism- belief that greatest loyalty is to nation of people who share a common history/culture
5) Nation-state-when nations has own independent gov??™t
6) Balkans- Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey; controlled by Ottomans
i) Greece wants independence; Brit, Fran & Russia sign treaty recognizing Greece??™s indep.
7) 1830; Belgians declare indep. From Dutch
8) Many uprisings for independence spreads throughout Europe
9) France est. republic; Louis-Napoleon-nephew of Napoleon; takes title of emperor
i) Builds railroads, industrializes, helps France prosper
10) Russia; not yet modernized; still have serfs
i) Alexander II- Czar Nicholas??™s son; moves Russia towards modernization; frees serfs
F) Nationalism
1) Belief that people of single nationality should unite under single gov??™t
2) Begin to use nationalist feelings for own purpose; build states where they will have total control
3) Austria- Hungary, Ottoman split; break into nation-states
4) Italy
i) Giuseppe Mazzini-Italian; org. nationalist grp. ???Young Italy???
ii) Italians ask Sardinia king for leadership, Camillo di Cavour- wealthy aristocrat; prime minister
iii) Goal is to get N. Italy for Sardinia; drives Austrians out; wants S. Italy now
a) Secretly helping nationalists rebel
iv) Giuseppe Garibaldi- soldier; captures Sicily; followers Red Shirts- always wear bright red shirts
v) N&S combined, barely understand each other & both have a diff. life style
5) Prussia
i) Calls constitutional convention; draws up liberal constitution
ii) Liberal parliament refuse Wilhelm $; Junkers(wealthy class) supports
iii) Otto von Bismarck- Junker; prime minister; master of realpolitik-politics of reality
iv) Alliance w/ Prussia & Austria; purposely messes w/ both, Seven Weeks??™ War; Austria loses
a) Prussia takes N. Germany
v) France-Prussian War
a) Messes w/ telegram, Fran. declares war on Prussia; Napoleon III is taken captive, surrender
b) Takes S. Germany; Wilhelm I crowned Kaiser- emperor
6) Romanticism-movement in art & ideas; deep interest in nature & feelings
i) Poetry, writing, stories, music change
7) Realism-literature & art trying to show life as it is, not how it should be
i) Science expands; camera invented
ii) Impressionism- painters try to give their own impression of subject
II) Industrialization
A) Industrial Revolution- increased output of machine-made goods
1) Enclosures- large fields owned by landowners; experiment to boost crops; new agriculture method, force small farmers out; seed drill
2) Crop rotation-rotating planted crops, diff. crop planted each year; only breed best sheep
3) Industrialization-process of developing machine production of goods; require:
i) Water power, iron ore, river for transportation, harbors for merchant ships
ii) Brit. has all factors of production- resources needed to produce goods; war never fought on soil
4) Spinning jenny; allows spinner to work 8 threads; shuttle; double weaving
5) Factories- large buildings w/machines to work; run on waterpower
6) Entrepreneur- person who org. & manages business; steam engine made, roads improved, railroad
i) First railroad Liverpool(Manchester; creates thousands of jobs, cheap way to transport
B) Urbanization-city building & urban areas double in pop.
1) Living conditions=bad; no plans, no codes, no drains, lots of garbage; sickness spread
2) Working conditions=bad; work 14hrs/day 6days/wk; machines are dangerous
i) Eventually better wages, shorter hours & working conditions
3) Middle class- skilled workers, professionals, wealthy farmers
4) More jobs; overuse natural resources 7 abuse environment
C) Manchester
1) Children work in factories too, many injuries, do heavy dangerous work, waste poison river
2) Work long hours, bad conditions, child labor is cheap
D) Industrialization spreads
1) US
i) New factories, more workers(mostly young single women)
ii) New inventions; light bulb, telephone, move westward; railroad system expanded
iii) Corporation-business owned by stockholders, share profits, but not responsible for debts
2) Europe
i) Sneak inventions out of Brit. & other countries to Belgium, Germany, etc.
a) Ger. Send children to Eng. to learn industrial management
ii) Markets are thriving, clothing=cheaper; strengthen eco. Ties, poor countries=market for products
iii) Imperialism; policy of extending country??™s rule to other lands
E) Philosophy
1) Laissez faire- let owners of industry set working conditions; gov??™t only interfere w/ wealth
2) Adam Smith- professor; defend idea of free eco/markets
3) Capitalism- eco. system; goal is to make profits from business; Thomas Malthus & David Ricardo
i) Underclass=always poor; pop. increase faster than food supply
4) Utilitarianism- judge ideas & actions based on usefulness; promote greatest food for as many people
i) John Stuart Mill; Robert Owen-improve working conditions
5) Socialism- production owned by public; belief in progress
i) Gov??™t should plan eco. rather than depend on free-market
6) Communism- all land, factories, business owned by people; private property doesn??™t exist
i) Karl Marx- Ger. Journalist; society is always divided into warring classes; workers & employers
ii) Inspires China, Russia, Vietnam & Cuba
7) Unions- workers join together in voluntary associations
i) Collective bargaining-negotiations between workers & employers
ii) Bargain for better conditions
iii) If refuse, members strike- refuse to work; picket peacefully
iv) Skilled workers lead b/c skills give extra power
v) Factory Act of 1833; illegal to hire younger than 9yrs old;9-12yrs no more than 12hrs.
a) Women can??™t work underground; Ten Hours Act; limit work to 10hrs/day for women&kids
8) Slavery
i) William Wilberforce; leads fight for end of slavery; Brit abolishes slaver in 1833
9) Women; fight for reforms; International Council for Women
i) Public schools made
III) Reforms & Activism
A) Reform Bill of 1832
1) Wealthy mid-class wants greater voice
i) Suffrage-right to vote extended; more people can now vote
2) Chartist movement- movement of workers who couldn??™t vote; sign petition People??™s Charter of 1838
i) Vote in secret, end prop. Requirements, pay for members
ii) Parliament rejects Chartists??™ demands; but later given, except for annual elections
3) Queen Victoria- Queen of Brit.; rules for longest time; Brit. reach height of wealth & power
i) Popular w/subjects, only a symbol, have no power
4) Women; want to vote & have more power
i) Org. reform societies & protest; Emmeline Pankhurst & daughters protest, sometimes jailed
B) France
1) Paris Commune; workers throw up barricades & block army
2) Third Republic- new system; gov??™t that doesn??™t really divide people
3) Dreyfus affair- controversy; Capt. Alfred Dreyfus accused of selling military secrets; life in prison
i) Built up by anti-Semitism-prejudice against Jews
ii) Emile Zola write letter (J??™accuse!) abt. Army covering it up; Dreyfus declared innocent
4) Zionism- Jew??™s fight/word for separate homeland
C) Self-rule
1) Upper Canada-Eng. Speaking; Lower Canada-French speaking; own assembly
i) Rebellions break out; send statesman to investigate; reunite both, French slowly come part of Eng. Culture, allow to govern themselves
2) Dominion- self-governing country in domestic affairs; but part of motherland
3) New Zealand; Maoris- New Zealand??™s people, defend land strongly; must recognize right
i) Negotiate; sign treaty, Maoris accept rule, but recognize land rights; wool producing
ii) Women have rights to vote
4) Australia; Aborginies- Australian people, little resistance
i) Colonize w/ convicts(prisons too full); penal colony- place where convicts are sent to serve
a) After freed, can buy land & settle as free men; breed sheep
ii) Want to self rule, but remain w/Brit; create parliaments; become dominions
iii) Natives eventually driven out
5) Irish; most are Catholics; law made to limit rights; Irish mad
i) Great Famine- Irish depend on potatoes; fungus ruin all crop & millions starve & die
ii) Demand for home rule- local control over internal matters only; not given
a) Eventually gets independence; N. Ireland stays
b) United Kingdom doesn??™t contain N. Ireland, Great Britain does
D) Expansion in US
1) War w/ Mexico; settlers settle in Texas-Cali; don??™t like Mexico??™s rule; revolt rule
i) US annex Texas; US capture Mexico City; Mexico cede(give up)territory to US
2) Manifest Destiny-idea that it??™s US??™s duty to rule NA from Atlantic-Pacific
i) Use to justify acts & removals of Indians
ii) Trail of Tears
3) Civil War; N. has free workers, S depend on slave labor; conflict of slavery
i) Abraham Lincoln-President; promise to end slavery; South secede-withdraw, from Union
ii) Lincoln orders rebels to be brought back; US Civil War begins; S has better military, N bigger pop., transportation, resources & factories; S surrenders
iii) Emancipation Proclamation- (1863)declaration that all slaves are free; 13th amendment
a) 14th &15th gives right to vote
iv) Segregation- separation of blacks & white begin in South
4) Immigration increases & railroads expand
E) Inventions
1) Thomas Edison; light bulb; phonograph
2) Alexander Bell; telephone; Guglielmo Marconi; radio, use Morse Code
3) Henry Ford; automobile, assembly line- line of workers who put one piece on car as it passes by
i) Makes production faster
4) Wright Brothers; fly, aircraft
5) Mass culture- appeal of art, writing, music, etc.
i) Mass market for books, newspapers & magazines, leisure time ???weekend??™
ii) Musical halls, singers, dancers, comedians, etc. ???vaudeville??™
iii) Movies; short films; people go there on leisure times now
iv) Sports, entertainment for many soccer, cricket, etc
F) Medicine & Science
1) Pasteurization-kill germs in liquids; learn that heat kills bacteria, bacteria causes diseases
i) Now clean wounds first; more people live, vaccines made
2) Charles Darwin-biologist; challenges idea of special creation
i) Theory of evolution- species evolve; change through natural selection
ii) Gregor Mendel collects genes
3) Chemistry
i) Dmitri Mendeleev; chemist; org. Periodic Table
ii) Marie & Pierre Curie find radioactivity- mineral that releases powerful form of energy
4) Psychology- study of human mind & behavior; Ivan Pavlov; dog & food experiment
IV) Africa
A) Congo
1) Treaty w/ Belgium; Leopold est. colony & force Africans to do labor for him, all of Europe want
2) Imperialism- takeover of a country w/ intent of dominating life style, eco & politics
3) Racism- belief that one race is superior to others
4) Social Darwinism- Darwin??™s theory, only the fittest survive
i) Africans don??™t have technology Europe has, so it is powerless
5) Europe builds railroads, steamers, cables; makes communication easier
i) Maxim gun-automatic machine gun; shoots 100 at a time
ii) Drug quinine; protects from mosquitoes; wars fought, Africans lose & at disadvantage
B) Berlin Conference 1884-1885- meeting where Euro. Nations split up Africa
1) Africa very rich in natural resources (copper, tin, diamonds, gold, silver); don??™t buy Euro. Goods
C) Shaka- Zulu chief; good military, fights against Euro.; successors=not as strong
1) Boers- Cutch farmers; settle in E. Indies, clash w/ Brit
i) Great Trek- Boers movement north
2) Boer War- between Brit & Boers; first modern war; Brit. wins
D) Nigeria
1) Colony- country govern internally by foreign power
2) Protectorate- country w/ internal gov??™t but under control of outside power
3) Sphere of Influence- area where outside power claims special/exclusive investment
4) Economic Imperialism- independent, less developed nations control by private business interest
5) Indirect control- to rule territory/region from outside; let region manage own, have gov??™t council
i) Some self-rule, goal=develop future leaders; Brit. & US
6) Direct Control- direct rule; foreign officials brought in; no self rule, assimilation; Fren, Ger & Portu
i) Paternalism- policy where Euro. Governs people in fatherly way, helps w/ needs, but no rights
ii) Assimilation- policy that over time, pop. will adapt French culture
iii) Association- recognize institutions & culture, but inferior to French culture
7) Maji-maji(magic water); tribe believed it would turn bullets into water; many died
8) Menelik II- Ethiopia??™s emperor; plays Italians, French & Brit. against each other
i) Battle of Adowa; against Italians; maintains independence
9) Hospitals & schools brought to Africa
i) Africans lose lots of land & independence & gets more diseases; culture breaks down, family separated
E) Ottoman
1) Fall; reforms being to fail, trouble is rising, territories gaining independence/self-rule
2) Geopolitics-interest in taking land for its location
i) Ottoman have good location for wars; Russia wants
3) Crimean War- war between Russia & Ottoman for Black Sea; Brit & Fran. join w/ Ottoman
4) Ottoman=crumbling
5) Muhammad Ali; leader sent by Ottoman to govern Egypt; breaks away & gains control of Syria & Arabia
i) Reforms in military & eco.; cash crop
6) Suez canal-water way to connect Red Sea & Mediterranean; borrowed lots of $$; can??™t pay back
i) Very impt. To Brit; allows quicker access
F) Persia
1) Brit. takes Afghanistan away, very interested in Persia for oil
2) Tobacco made, riots & revolutionaries break out
G) India
1) Seopys-Indian soldiers
2) Jewel in the crown-Brit. most valued colony; lots of raw material
3) Buys Brit. products, est. railroad, telephones, dams, bridges, schools, etc; crop=tea, indigo, coffee & opium
4) Sepoy Mutiny- rumor that corks to gun powder is made of beef/pork; makes Indians mad; Indians resent Brit.; fight w/ Brit. Hindus & Muslims won??™t unite
5) Turning Point
i) India put under Raj- Brit. rule; promise to respect Indian states & will remain independent
H) Pacific Rim- countries that order Pacific Ocean (Philippines, Indochina)
1) Brit. takes Malaysia & Burma; encourage Chinese to immigrate to Malaysia
2) French; has Indochina; Napoleon III orders French to invade S Vietnam; gains Laos, Cambodia & N. Vietnam
3) Thailand; King Mongkut- King of Siam; maintains independence
4) US; gains Philippine, Puerto Rico & Guam during Spanish-Am. War
i) Emilio Aguinaldo- leader of Filipino nationalist; fight for independence; fight; US wins
ii) Promise to prepare for self-rule, build roads, railroads, hospitals, schools
iii) Hawaii; sugar plantations
a) Push for annexation- add territory to US
b) Queen Liliuokalani- Hawaiian ruler; takes throne, calls for constitution to increase ower; removed from power
c) Annexed to USV) Changes Around the Globe
A) Opium War – The Chinese were very self-sufficient and wouldnt accept Western advancement. Britain also bought millions of pounds of tea from China and barely imported goods. They then were able to sell Opium to the Chinese people in large quantities and by 1835, 12 million Chinese people were addicted. Because Britain refused to stop selling them the drug a war broke out.
1) 1839 – Chinas Ships were no match for British steam gunboats and cannons. Chinese Defeat.
i) This defeat lead to the Treaty of Nanjing signed in 1842 and another peace treaty in 1944.
a) Britain was given the island of Hong Kong.
b) U.S. and other foreign citizens were given extraterritorial rights. These people were exempt from Chinese law.
??? ex. If an American man killed a Chinese man, on Chinese soil, he wouldnt be charged.
B) China also had many internal problems. (huge population growth and food production not increasing, Yellow River flooding farming areas, Chinese government corrupted, people couldnt get jobs, etc.)
1) Hong Xiuquan led the Taiping Rebellion, “Great Peace”
i) Late 1840s – 1864. A peasant rebel force.
a) 1853 – 1 million people
ii) 1853 – Captured Nanjing and declared it their capital.
iii) 1864 – Qing forces, militia, British and French fought against the Taiping.
a) 20 million deaths
2) Dowager Empress Cixi (1861 – 1908) – Traditional values. Self-strengthening movement.
3) In the late 19th century foreign countries took advantage of Chinas economic, political, and military weaknesses. China became a sphere of influence – a region in which a foreign nation controlled trade and investment.
i) To make sure that other nations wouldnt divide China into colonies and shut out American trade, the U.S. declared an Open Door Policy. Chinas doors were now open to all nations.
4) Peasants and Workers frustrated. They create the Society of Harmonious Fists –> The Boxers
i) The Boxer Rebellion was a campaign against the Empresss rule and foreigner privilege.
a) The Boxers surrounded the European section of Beijing but were defeated a few months later by a multinational force of soldiers.
C) Japan was very isolated. They refused western officials.
1) However in 1853 U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry comes and scared the Japanese with the U.S.s big iron ships.
i) Out of fear the Japanese sign The Treaty of Kanagawa. And Western powers started trading at treaty ports.
2) After the Tokugawa shogun stepped down Mutsuhito reigned for 45 years, adopting new, Western ways in the Meiji era
3) Sino-Japanese War – Japan fighting China on Korean soil because China didnt obey their Hands-Off-Korea deal. China was defeated and they signed a peace treaty. **First colonies – Taiwan and Pescadores Islands
4) Russo-Japanese War – Japan and Russia fighting over Manchuria because the Russians wouldnt stay out of Korea. Japan won. Theodore Roosevelt drafted Treaty of Portsmouth.
i) Russia had to stay out of Manchuria and Korea
5) Japan attacked Korea and imposed annexation. Now it was under Japans control and they ruled harshly.
D) Latin America After Independence
1) Landowners got only wealthier; Unequal distribution
2) Political instability; caudillos – dictators.
i) Juan Vicente Gomez – ruled Venezuela for nearly 30 years. “All of Venezuela is my cattle ranch.”
ii) President Domingo Sarmiento (Argentina) – improving education but taken out of power by a caudillo.
3) The U.S. didnt want Europe to try to reconquer Latin America and wanted to trade. Monroe Doctrine
i) Cuba declared independence and fought but the Cubans gave up the fight.
ii) U.S. joined Cuban war for independence. 6 week war. Spanish-American War.
a) **U.S. got Spains last colonies! – Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines
iii) U.S. is the “Colossus of the North”
iv) Panama was a province of Columbia. But after encouraging the Panamanians to gain their independence, the U.S. got to build the Panama Canal for free. It opened in 1914 after being built for 10 years and helped with trade.
v) Roosevelt Corollary – international police power. (Actually U.S. was just spreading its influence)
E) Mexican Revolution
1) Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna- Mexican political leader; fought for Mexico??™s independence
2) Benito Juarez- liberal reformer; strongly influences politics
i) Opens law offices to everyone, not just rich
3) La Reforma- liberal reform movement; redistribute land, separation of church & state, more edu.
i) French invade Mexico; civil war lasts for 3 yrs
4) Porfirio Diaz- new caudillo; has support of military
i) Offers land, power & political favors to whoever supports him
ii) ???Order and Process???
5) Francisco Madero- educated in US & Fran; believe in democracy; calls for revolution
6) Fracisco ???Pancho??? Villa- cowboy who believes in taking from the rich & giving to the rich
7) Emiliano Zapata- Revolutionary leader; raises a strong army
i) Diaz agrees to step down
8) General Victoriano Huerta takes over; revolutionary comes back & over throws
9) New Constitution; break up large estates, state takes over land owned by church, min. age, right to strike, equal payVI) The Great War
A) Europe is feeling very uneasy. A sort of calm before the storm.
1) Unsettling feelings among European powers
i) Rise of Nationalism – Nationalistic rivalries
ii) Imperialism – Quest for colonies caused tension
iii) Growth of militarism – the policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war. The importance of war was being stressed. It made people feel patriotic but also frightened.
2) Alliances getting tangled. Otto von Bismarck, Prussian chancellor, used war to unify Germany. Wanted to isolate France.
i) Triple Alliance – Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary
ii) Treaty with Russia
a) Russia and Austria were rivals in the Balkan
3) Kaiser Wilhelm II – policy changes dramatically. Sly, deceitful, stubborn. Wanted to assert his own power. Forced Bismarck to resign.
i) Alliances fell apart.
a) Britain, France and Russia – Triple Entente
4) Balkans “The Powder Keg of Europe”
i) Balkan region, many new nations – strong nationalistic pride.
ii) Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand , heir to Austro-Hungarian throne, by a Serbian
a) All the tangled alliances came to play. Austria and Russia wouldnt negotiate. War set in motion.
B) War Consuming Europe – Chain reactions
1) Schlieffen Plan by General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen.
i) Basically Germany would quickly attack France and Russia in the event of a two-front war.
a) The troops had to go through Belgium on their way to France and invaded Belgium.
??? Outraged Britain declared war on Germany
2) Central Powers – Germany and Austria-Hungary (later joined by Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire)
Allies – Great Britain, France, Russia (later Japan and Italy)
3) War with France was on the Western Front.
i) At first there was a long stalemate but soon, trench warfare.
a) The space between the trenches was called no mans land.
4) War with Russia was on the Eastern Front. (Russians and Serbs vs. Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
i) Russia wasnt industrialized yet.
ii) The army was continually short on food, guns, ammunition, clothes, boots, and blankets.
a) Only asset – number of people.
C) War Affects the World
1) U.S. joins.
i) Germanys unrestricted submarine warfare. Attacked U.S. ships
2) WW1 becomes a total war. Countries devoted all their resources to the war.
i) Goods were short in supply, so rationing was used.
ii) Governments used propaganda to persuade the people and keep up morale and support for the war (posters were very important)
iii) Women replaced men fighting and worked a lot.
3) The Allies Win!
i) U.S. helped shift the balance of power in the Allies favor.
ii) “loss of a generation”
iii) Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungarian Empire fell.
iv) Kaiser Wilhelm forced to step down – Germany a republic
v) An armistice was signed, and fighting was stopped. WWI ended.
vi) Germany feeling bitter.
4) The Allies met at Versailles
i) “The Big Four”
a) President Woodrow Wilson of the United States
b) Georges Clemenceau of France
c) David Lloyd George of Great Britain
d) Vittorio Orlando of Italy
ii) Wilsons proposal of Fourteen Points.
a) End of secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, reduced armies and navies, changing borders and new nations
??? self-determination – people could decide what government they wanted
iii) Treaty of Versailles – June 28, 1919
a) Harsh punishments for Germany.
b) League of Nations created to keep peace.
c) Germany and Russia excluded. (Russia an outcast for withdrawal.)
d) Not well received. Many bitter feelings.
??? Countries getting less land, American public not pleased.VII) Revolution and Nationalism
A) Revolutions in Russia
1) Russian people tired of harsh, oppressive rule of czars and social inequalities.
2) Alexander III – harsh measures to wipe out revolutionaries.
i) censorship, forbade use of minority languages, Jewish persecution
a) pogroms – organized violence against Jews. (Police and soldiers stood by and watched.)
3) Czar Nicholas II refused changed.
i) His minister Sergey Witte helped push Russia forward.
a) Trans-Siberian Railway.
4) Revolutionary Movements Growing
i) Wanted industrial workers to overthrow the czar
ii) The Bolsheviks supported small number of committed revolutionaries (the Mensheviks wanted a broad base of popular support.)
a) Bolshevik leader was , Lenin.
iii) January 22, 1905: Bloody Sunday – 200, 000 people were at the palace protesting. The czar wasnt at the palace. His guards opened fire and killed 500 to 1,000 unarmed people.
a) It provoked waves of strikes and violence.
b) The czar reluctantly promised more freedom. He created the Duma: Russias first parliament.
??? He dissolved the Duma 10 weeks later.
5) The czar then dragged Russia into WWI.
i) His wife, Czarina Alexandra, ran the government while he was on the warfront.
a) She ignored his chief advisors.
ii) She instead listened to Rasputin, a “holy man” who claimed to have special healing powers and seemed to alleviate the symptoms of her sons hemophilia.
a) She allowed him to make key political decisions
6) March Revolution
i) The czar abdicated his thrown.
a) The Romanovs were murdered.
ii) Leaders of the Duma then established a provisional government (temporary govnmt.)
a) Soviets, local councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers, had more influence than the provisional government in some areas.
iii) Lenin returned to Russia
7) Lenin and the Bolsheviks seized power
i) “Peace, Land, and Bread.”
ii) Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace and took over government offices
a) Bolsheviks now in charge!
b) Distributed farmland among peasants
c) signed peace treaty with Germany
iii) Bolsheviks renamed their selves the Communist Party
a) communism – classless society
b) In actuality, the Party held all the power, not the people
B) Stalinist Russia
1) Trotsky and Stalin were both supporters of Lenins movement. When Lenin died, they became bitter rivals.
i) In a couple of years, Stalin was in total command of the Communist Party
a) Trotsky was forced into exile
ii) Stalin wanted to change the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state: the government would have control over every aspect of public and private life.
a) It appears to have a sense of security and direction for the future.
??? No democracy, freedom, reason, human dignity, and worth as an individual.
2) Stalin took complete control. Even the economy.
i) Command economy – the government makes all economic decisions.
ii) Five-Year Plan to industrialize.
a) Impossibly high quotas to increase the output of steel, coal, oil and electricity.
b) People faced severe shortages of housing, food, clothing, etc.
iii) Agricultural Revolution
a) seized peoples privately owned farms and turned them into large, government owned farms or collective farms.
??? Peasants hated this greatly. 10 million peasants died.
??? Kulaks (wealthy peasants) hated it the most. The Soviet government thought it best to eliminate them.
iv) The Great Purge – a campaign of terror
a) Trials, executions, etc.
b) Propaganda
??? Socialist realism
c) Censorship
C) Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule
1) Nationalists Overthrow the Qing Dynasty
i) The Qing had ruled since 1644
ii) Kuomintang or Nationalist Party, led by Sun Yixian, pushed for nationalization and modernization.
a) Sun became president in 1912
b) He lacked the authority needed to rule
iii) He turned over the presidency to Yuan Shikai, a powerful general.
a) He ruled as a military dictator and when he died China was in chaos.
2) WWI = more problems.
i) Even though they helped out the allies, Japan got Chinese territories.
ii) May Fourth Movement – national movement in Beijing boycotting European imperialists and Japan
3) The Communist Party in China
i) The Soviet Union under Lenin was their model for political and economic change
ii) Mao Zedong a founder of the Chinese Communist Party.
iii) Lenin befriended China and sent military advisers and equipments
iv) Nationalists and Communists clash
v) Civil War! – Nationalists vs. Communists
a) The Long March – 6,000-mile-long journey.
b) Maos Red Army ran from the Nationalists
vi) Japan took advantage of this during this weakness and launched an invasion.
a) By 1938, Japan held control of a large part of China
D) Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia
1) WWII heightened Nationalist Activities and Feeling
i) After seeing the world, Indian soldiers wanted more self-rule
ii) Amrtsar Massacre
a) 10,000 Hindus and Muslims flocked to Amritsar to fast and pray and listen to political speeches.
b) The people were unaware that the British had banned public meetings
c) The British killed nearly 400 Indians and wounded 1200.
2) Mohandas K. Gandhi emerged as a leader
i) Mahatma “Great Soul”
ii) He developed satyagraha or truth-force. Better known as passive resistance or civil disobedience.
iii) The Salt March
a) Peaceful protest where Indian people made their own salt instead of buying it and giving money to Great Britain
b) Police beat Indians with steel-tipped clubs.
3) 135 Government of India Act – self government and limited democratic elections
4) Nationalism Spreads to Southwest Asia
i) Turkey Becomes a Republic.
a) Mustafa Kemal led the Turkish nationalists in overthrowing the last Ottoman sultan
??? He separated laws of Islam from laws of the nation
??? He abolished religious courts
??? Women gained more freedom
??“ The right to vote and hold public office
ii) Persia Becomes Iran.
iii) Saudi Arabia Keeps Islamic Traditions.VIII) Science
A) Albert Einstein- German physicist; new ideas abt. space, time, energy & matter
1) Light travels; is a constant
2) Theory of relativity- space & time can change when it is measured to relative motion
3) Isaac Newton- discovers gravity & law of motion
B) Sigmund Freud- Austrian physician, believes mine is beyond reason; part of the mind is unconscious
1) Goes for personal desires
2) Existentialism- philosophy of searching for a meaning in an uncertain world
3) Friedrich Nietzsche- German philosopher; creativity & individuality suffers from stress
C) Art
1) Surrealism- painting linking dreams with real life; painters attempt to call on unconscious mind
2) Dada movement (1916-24)- style of painting, absurd & meaningless
3) Frank Lloyd Wright- architect; functionalism- reflect design on building??™s use/function
4) Jazz- new popular musical style; developed mainly by African Am.; freedom of the age
5) Women more independent & wear looser clothing
D) Automobiles
1) Prices dropped
2) 1927; Charles Lindbergh- American pilot; 33-hr solo flight, New York( Paris
E) Radio
1) Guglielmo Marconi- develops radio; most families own & use for news
2) Movies; motion pics now a major industry
i) Cuba, Jap, Europe, America, etc. produce movies
F) Depression
1) Europe took loans from US to rebuild eco.
2) Most nations now have democratic gov??™t; but little experience with it
i) Too many political parties
3) Coalition government- temporary alliance w/ parties
4) Weimar Republic- Germany??™s new gov??™t; weak from start; people blame Weimar for defeat
i) Print $ to pay back debts; money now worthless
ii) Fran & Ger. Sign treaty to never go to war against each other again
iii) Kellogg-Briand peace pact- renounce war as instrument of national policy
5) US; everyone supported on US, if US falls, everyone does
i) 3 weaknesses; uneven distribution of $$, overproduction of agriculture & lessen demand
ii) Poor families=too poor to buy goods produced & to sell; factories cut back more & more
iii) Many people buy from stockbrokers; stocks begin to crash
iv) Great Depression- 1932; US, prices, production, business, etc began to decline
v) Americans began to demand payment from Europe; raise tariffs, world trade drops
6) Brit.; National Gov??™t; pass high tariffs, increase tax, regulate currency, slow steady recovery
7) Fran; very self-sufficient; Popular Front- moderates, Socialists &Communists; pass reforms, preserve democratic gov??™t
8) Franklin D. Roosevelt- president of US during Gt. Dep.
i) Begins New Deal- program reform; public projects to provide jobs, financial help to businesses, believe gov??™t spending will create jobs; recover slowly
G) Fascism- loyalty to the state & obedience to leader
1) Dictatorship, classes, nationalism
2) Italy; Benito Mussolini- newspaper editor & politician; forms fascist Party
i) People demand King Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge; king submits
ii) Outlaws other parties, secret police, censor radio & publications
iii) Attacks Ethiopia; Ethiopia asks League of nations for help, but ignored
3) Germany; Adolf Hitler- dictator of Germany
i) Finds Nazis; Nazism-German fascism; Hitler chosen to be def Fuhrer- leader
ii) Jailed once; writes Mein Kampf- My Struggle
iii) Claims Ger. Needs more lebensraum- living space; promise to conquer E. Europe & Russia
iv) Named chancellor; demands absolute power; bans political parties
v) forms SS (Schutzstaffel; secret police); arrest & murder many
vi) wants to control every aspect of Ger. life; turns radio, literature, painting, etc to propaganda
vii) blames Jews for everything; Kristallnacht- Night of the Broken Glass
4) Japan
i) Militarists take over; want to restore traditional control
ii) Invades Manchuria & build mines & factories
iii) Invades China; China lead by Jiang Jieshi & Mao; takes N. China
5) Ger. Enter Rhine River; buffer zone between Ger & Fran.
i) British urge appeasement- to give in to enemy to keep peace
ii) Axis powers- alliance between Germany, Italy & Japan
6) Francisco Franco- General of Spain, Fascists; civil war breaks out; becomes dictator
7) US goes into isolationism- belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided
8) Third Reich- Hitler??™s German Empire; wants to take Czechoslovakia
9) Munich Conference- meeting between Ger., Fran, Brit, & Italy; Hitler must respect Cz. BordersIX) World War II 1939-1945
A) Nonaggression pact- Soviet Union & Ger. agreement to not attack each other publically
B) Lightening War
1) Blitzkrieg- lightening war; Hitler??™s strategy for war
2) Soviets & Ger. attack Poland together; promise Soviets land; Brit. & Fran. officially declare war
3) Phony War; Brit. & Fran. wait for Ger. to attack, no one attacks
4) Ger. attacks France; Fran. pushed back against water
i) Falls; Charles de Gaulle- French general, flees to London, sets up gov??™t-in-exile
5) Ger. attacks Brit.; Winston Churchill- British prime minister; declares Brit. will never surrender
i) Operation Sea Lion; Battle of Britain- Ger. attack on Brit; lasts for 1yr.; Hitler backs up
6) Ger & Italy attack N. Africa; Brit. fights back
i) General Erwin Rommel- ???Desert Fox??™; Hitler??™s general, forms Afrika Korps & attacks Brit.
ii) Hitler takes Balkans; Soviet union is next; Red Army=largest, but not well equipped or trained
a) Turns to Moscow, Russian winter comes; Red Army pushes Ger. out
7) Atlantic Charter- Brit & US joint declaration, can lend/lease arms to other countries
i) Hitler orders ships to be hit & sunk
C) Japan
1) Isoroku Yamamoto- Japan??™s naval strategist
i) Pearl Harbor- US navy port in Hawaii; attacked by Japanese & many ships sunk
ii) Jap. declares war on US; seizes Hong Kong, Malaya, Burma, etc.
2) Colonel James H. Doolittle- leader in bombing Jap.
3) Battle of Midway- battle for Midway Island; home of US airfield; US wins
4) Douglas MacArthur- general commander of Allies in pacific; island-hopping to Jap.
i) Battle of Guadalcanal- Allies vs. Jap; on Guadalcanal; Jap abandons island
D) Holocaust- mass slaughter of civilians; Jews, crippled, gypsies, Poles, mentally challenged
1) Nazis say Aryans- German people; are ???master race??™
2) Begins to persecute Jews; Kristallnacht- Nazis storm & attack Jewish homes & businesses
3) Ghettos- segregated Jew areas; Jews try to secretly keep traditions & teach
4) Final Solution- plan to quickly eliminate Jews; genocide- systematic killing of people
i) SS shoot prisoners in ditches; makes prisoners work & barely gives food
ii) Begins to build extermination camps; 1942; many many many killed
E) Victory
1) Attack Ger. on two fronts
2) Bernard Montgomery- takes control of Brit. forces in N. Africa
3) Dwight D. Eisenhower- American general
4) Battle of Stalingrad- Ger. vs. Russia at Stalingrad; Stalin refuses to surrender; wins
5) Allies invade France; put countries into total war; many families give much support
6) D-Day- Operation Overload; invasion of France; lead by Dwight D. Eisenhower
7) Battle of the Bulge- Allies push Ger., Ger. push Allies; Allies win
F) Unconditional Surrender
1) Hitler commits suicide; Third Reich offers unconditional surrender; victory
2) Jap. still doesn??™t give in
3) Kamikaze- Japanese suicide pilots; believes cowardly to surrender, will give up life
4) Manhattan Project; the building of the atomic bomb
i) Bombs Hiroshima & Nagasaki; Jap. surrenders
G) Devastation
1) Europe is in ruins
2) Little water, food, no electricity, people very far away from own homes
3) Communist declines in Italy & Fran.; eco. begins to recover
4) Nuremberg Trials- trials of Nazi leaders for waging war of aggression
H) US occupy Jap.
1) MacArthur wants to be fair; demilitarization- disbands Jap. armed forces, not allowed to have army, navy, air force, etc. Only police force
2) Helps with new democracy, distributes land, increase participation, sells land
3) Emperor is now only a symbol
4) New constitution; Diet- people elect a two-house parliament; lead by prime minister

Compensated Dating

The recent story of a 16-year-old girl who was murdered whilst undergoing compensated dating has shocked the entire society and raised concerns about many teenagers providing companionship and sex to men or women for gifts and money in Hong Kong. Also, the ensuing cases of girls engaging in compensated dating have also revealed that it has become a growing trend among teens in Hong Kong. In this letter, I would like to look into the reasons and social impact to teenagers and give my opinion on this issue.
One of the reasons is that teenagers are living in a totally materialistic society and they cannot resist the materialistic temptations. Actually, nowadays young people place more value over a material life rather than a spiritual one. They assume that possessing brand-name products can be a way to show off or cater for their desire. Therefore, many of them begin a life of prostitution aiming at satisfying their vanity.
Another reason for youngsters being willing to date or sleep with strange people for money is that in their view they are not prostitution because the choice is held on their hands and they can quit anytime. They also misunderstand that compensated dating is not immoral as it may not involve sex. Hence, they just think of money and continue doing this kind of thing.
What a worrying fact it is to know that many teenagers do not aware of the deadly consequences and do not consider giving up even they have the cognition of moral value. Young people should understand that compensated dating is just a sugar-coated trap. It may be a way to earn money, but the price is higher than what you think. For example, teenagers who engage in compensated dating must not be accepted by the others and they would be blasted by society. They cannot face up to the community with their true identity not only because people see it as a shame but also because they themselves would be in disgrace. Even they can finally quit, it is difficult of them to be accepted by others and reintegrate into the society. Besides, due to the fact that people would discriminate against them, they would easily suffer from low self-esteem or even psychological harm and ultimately commit suicide as they cannot find any meaning to survive.
Above all, compensated dating is described euphemistically to mislead innocent teenagers to engage in prostitution. Indeed, it is a form of prostitution. However, who should take the responsibility of this social phenomenon From my point of view, the wrong value given by the society should be the main fault. Hong Kong has been a capitalism for many years. It seems that everything can be commercialized and that??™s why teenagers nowadays deem that their body is a merchandise to earn fast money. Therefore, in the current phase, besides helping teenagers establish correct moral values, we should also get rid of the wrong social value otherwise more serious problems would appear even the problem of compensated dating is solved.

History Pinkerton

Pinkerton National Detective Agency
Pinkerton guards escort strike-breakers in Buchtel, Ohio, 1884The Pinkerton National Detective Agency, usually shortened to the Pinkertons, was a private U.S. security guard and detective agency established by Allan Pinkerton in 1850. Pinkerton had become famous when he foiled a plot to assassinate president-elect Abraham Lincoln, who later hired Pinkerton agents for his personal security during the Civil War. Pinkertons agents performed services ranging from security guarding to private military contracting work. At its height, the Pinkerton National Detective Agency employed more agents than there were members of the standing army of the United States of America, causing the state of Ohio to outlaw the agency due to fears it could be hired out as a private army or militia.[citation needed]
During the labor unrest of the late 19th century, businessmen hired Pinkerton agents to infiltrate unions, and as guards to keep strikers and suspected unionists out of factories. The best known such confrontation was the Homestead Strike of 1892, in which Pinkerton agents were called in to enforce the strikebreaking measures of Henry Clay Frick, acting on behalf of Andrew Carnegie, who was abroad; the ensuing conflicts between Pinkerton agents and striking workers led to several deaths on both sides. The Pinkertons were also used as guards in coal, iron, and lumber disputes in Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania, as well as the railroad strikes of 1887.
The company now operates as Pinkerton Consulting and Investigations, a division of the Swedish security company Securitas AB, although its government division is still known as Pinkerton Government Services. The organization was pejoratively called the “Pinks” by the outlaws and opponents.

Compassion

All people should master the skill of compassion. Compassion is a skill people tend to overlook and do not care a lot about, but yet if all people took the time out to be compassionate to one another, then there would be a great deal of harmony all over the world. Compassion is a human emotion prompted by the pain of others, and wants others to be free from suffering. In the Bible compassion is affirmed by the commandment, ???Do unto other as you would have them do unto you???. If people took the time out to master the skill of compassion then the world would progress to a compassionate place. Compassion is the desire to ease another person??™s sufferings. We as humans can show compassion in many different ways. Being generous, providing service for another, kindness and caring are just a few ways you can show compassion for another person. Compassion is prepared to meet others wherever they are, recognizing that the circumstance or challenge they now face is as much a part of their life as any other part. Compassion can laugh or cry, joke or commiserate, be curious and inquisitive, chatty or silent. Compassion is not afraid to be fully present, hopeful, or lighthearted. It does not turn away, or is never afraid to see beauty or find humor or share a fractured heart.
Compassion arises out of the deepest, most pure essence of humanity. And yet it is not magic, not some unreachable thing that you have to be a monk or nun to understand. You feel it and act on it every day. Almost all of us have held a door for someone juggling a lot of packages. We have an instinctive reaction that stops a toddler whos headed into the street – even if weve never met that toddler before. When you read to your children, the underlying feeling is compassion. When you laugh with a friend, its compassion that allows you to laugh. When you cry at a sad movie, its compassion that makes your feelings parallel to the ones on the screen. Even cheering at a football game arises out of compassion, because you “catch” the excitement from your fellow fans and from the action on the field. I have always considered myself to be a very compassionate person.
How do you feel when you see a homeless person holding a sign asking for money or food Do you immediately assume that he is a drunk, or she is a drug addict Do you check to see if your car doors are locked Do you avert your eyes and hope for the light to turn green so you can drive away and get back to your normal happy life When I see this person something pulls at my heart strings, making me wonder what lead him to this current circumstance and how I could help a little As Aquinas says, wouldnt you “rather feel compassion” for others, than “know the meaning of it” for yourself It could be you, or someone you love, who is standing on that corner asking for help someday. People think that all the homeless are asking for is charity, but I dont believe that to be the case. When a man or woman gets to a point that they have to stand on the corner on a cold or rainy day with a cardboard sign asking for money or food, I think they are asking for compassion, and its disheartening to see how little they receive. You dont need to be rich to show someone you care though. You could acknowledge them with a wave or a smile. You can wish them luck or stop back by with a soda or $10 bag of food. The next time you see someone asking for your help, the important thing is that you act on that feeling of compassion in your heart, rather than on those instincts of fear or assumptions of addiction. Even if it??™s only a short prayer, it??™s better than locking your doors or ignoring that another human being is there and in need of help.
I always try to find the good in everyone. Throughout the years I have participated in numerous church missions to help out the needy in underdeveloped countries. I have been to Jamaica to help build a church, host a Bible School, and re-do an entire homeless shelter. In Mexico my church group and I put together a revival and helped renovate a church. There is just something about the homeless and less fortunate that has a strong hold on me.
During this week of compassion my behavior did differ more from any other week. Typically my week only includes me staying home with my son during the day and going to school full time at night, coming home making dinner for my family, and going to bed only to wake up and do it all over again the next day. I liked the more compassionate side of me because it made me realize that by my busy lifestyle I have led astray from my more compassionate side and have only thought about what ???I need to do to get through the week???. The easiest thing about this week was that this is behavior that my family taught me and it was comfortable to express. The hardest thing I would have to say was stepping back from my ???routine??? lifestyle and open my eyes to find encounters in which I could convey more compassion. People responded well to my acts of compassion. For instance, on Saturday my family and I always go to this Greek restaurant where this homeless man is always standing at the entrance of the shopping center, the past two weeks we have stopped and gave him our to-go box of food. He never fails to tear up and thank us for our generosity. This will definitely be something I want to continue every week. In a month from now I predict that my behavior will be changed for the better. I have reminded myself that when I am down and out that I should never forget that there are numerous people out there in far worse situations than I.
These reflections on compassion will directly impact the actions I will take as being a leader or a member of a group. Compassion is an essential ingredient to being a good Wingman. Its about being non-judgmental of friends and co-workers while letting them know they can depend on you. Its covering a shift for someone that needs some special time with his or her family. Its being a sounding board for a friend that needs someone to talk to. Its taking care of those around us in little ways every day. We are living in uncertain times and certainly feeling the ripple effects of world events in our globalized society. The health of our economy and our national security are in question. Reaching out to people is the way to build bridges across cultures and lifestyles. It helps us to realize that our humanity transcends gender, race, age and religion. It will take compassionate leadership across every walk of life to help us weather the storms of our generation.