History Paper

Yin Yang Museum is hosting a exposition on the social role of the arts in early Chinese and Japanese civilizations. The exhibit will describe the Chinese and Japanese religion, languages, general philosophies, beliefs and the relationship between the two cultures and their arts.
* The exhibit starts off with how China became China. China is the world??™s oldest civilization. The Shang Dynasty is the earliest of the Chinese eras for which archaeological evidence was found. The written language as pretty much stayed the same through the centuries.
* The Zhou Dynasty was next and they introduced organized agriculture. Two great philosophical and religious traditions were introduced to China toward the middle of the Zhou Dynasty, Taosim and Confucianism. Yin and Yang is one of the best known Chinese images. Together they represent the Chinese religious philosophies that sum up life??™s basic opposing elements, such as, pain and pleasure, light and dark, good and evil, and etc.
* China??™s name originated from the Qin dynasty. The Qin standardized the writing system. The Great Wall was also created by the Qin. The Great Wall still remains the world??™s most remarkable structure.
* The Han dynasty took over after the Qin. They managed to restore Confucianism to favor, making it the state philosophy. Under this dynasty, the Silk Road was established. The Silk Road made it possible for their goods to travel from China to other countries. Do to the Silk Road, Buddhism spread from India into China.
* In the Song Dynasty, navigational compass, paper currency, gun powder, and printing, all were invented. Painting became popular during this dynasty. Ceramics became an important part of China. Calligraphy, beautiful writing, is a big part of China??™s culture.
* Japan created the world??™s first pottery. It was said that China lead Japan into creating pottery but then it was found that Japan was really the one who introduced pottery.
* Japan created the pottery in simple clay with various sizes such as large cooking and storage vessels. To show decoration and attraction patterns on the pottery, the Japan??™s used ropes and cords known as Jomon. With using Jomon and no written words on their pottery, this showed that Japan was bold and confident in its way of life.
* A new wave of people came to Japan bringing culture that led to great changes in Japan. The big change was the advanced agriculture, which mainly consisted of rice cultivation.
* In the fifth and sixth century people came from China and brought things that became vital parts to the Japanese culture. Some were a writing system, Buddhism, and new forms of pottery.
* Shinto was Japan??™s own religion. Shinto rituals were carried out in private homes and in the temples. It is said that Shinto was a reaction to the Chinese religious and culture influence.
* Japan has the world??™s oldest wooden temple which is Horyu-ji.
* Heian became the capital in 794 C.E., which became the most populated in the world. Most people in this era wrote poetry.
* Masked dance came in the sixth century to Japan as religious, secular ritual and as entertainment. * Zen became big which was a form of Buddhism. Buddhism and Shinto had converged by this era. In this era, Zen Buddhism formed. Zen focused on meditation to discover the Buddha in everyone. This new form of Buddhism did not believe in life after death instead they believed in only what was living around them.
* In the Ashikaga period Tea ceremonies became big and the tea huts were built.

Comparitive Perspective on Organized Crime

Comparative Perspective on Organized Crime
Russian and Asian Organized Crime
April 28, 2008Russian and Asian Organized Crime
Transnational organized crime involves the planning and execution of illicit business ventures by groups or networks of individuals working in more than one country (Reuter and Petrie, 1999; Albanese, 2004). These criminal groups use systematic violence and corruption to achieve their goals (Finckenauer and Voronin, 2001). Most crimes commonly include money laundering; human smuggling; cyber crime; and trafficking of humans, drugs, weapons, endangered species, body parts, or nuclear material.
Transnational crime families use various activities to specifically weaken economies, various countries financial systems and undermine democracy (Voronin, 2000). These networks often prey on weaker governments not yet powerful enough to oppose them, prospering on all illegal activities, drug trafficking, one crime that will create immense profits. By carrying out illegal activities, organized criminals upset the stability of nations worldwide, by using bribery, violence, or terrorism to achieve their goals.
From the viewpoints of the United States all criminal elements are looked upon in different views. In the United States the organized criminal families must be tried for their crimes against the law. However, in Russia as well as Asia, many of those illegal actions benefit their countries towns and villages. Granted, this is from the different criminal opportunities combined with family environment, but a crime is still a crime, regardless of the conditions of the population. Because of the proliferation of groups, not a specific organizational structure can be delineated as if it described one criminal organization. Russian organized crime has a far reaching range of influence and action on an international level. Russian immigrants are generally urban in origin, well-educated, and industrially and technologically skilled. Despite a language barrier, many have learned some English in Soviet-era schools, they have marketable skills. The Russian immigrant crime in this country did not grow out of the same cultural alienation and economic disparity experienced by other immigrant groups. Russian criminals did not begin their criminal careers as members of adolescent street gangs in ethnic ghettos, as did most of the organized criminals in the U.S. This characteristic is more defining of Russian organized crime in the United States than its violence is the predominant nature of its criminal activity. With the principal exceptions of extortion and money laundering, ROC had relatively little or no involvement in some of the more traditional crimes of organized crime, such as drug trafficking, gambling, and loan sharking. On the other side these varied criminal groups are extensively engaged in a broad array of frauds, and scams, including healthcare fraud, insurance scams, stock frauds, antiquities swindle. Forgery and gas tax evasion schemes are the least of the crimes the Russian organized criminal element are involved in. Russian organized crime is very adept at changing criminal activities and diversifying into new criminal markets. Financial markets and banks are the newest targets of criminal opportunity for Russian Organized Crime. Russian organized crime captures a variety of crime groups and criminal activities, the crimes and forms of criminal organization in the U.S. differ from those in Russia and elsewhere in the world. This is a result of different external environments and criminal opportunities. The structure of Russian Organized Crime does not look like either what is commonly understood to be the structure of organized crime or the term of mafia in the conventional sense of those terms. The networks are not highly centralized nor are they dominated by a small number of individuals. Those individuals, have influence and continue to occupy their positions on the basis of their personal characteristics. The networks lack continuing structures, since the structures are not simply small groups of criminals essentially acting independently of one another, but a broad connectivity among most of the participating criminals. They may not be a direct connection to a large number of fellow criminals, but they are indirectly connected to all. Allowing this gives the networks a great deal of flexibility in the organization of offenses, meaning they can be responsive to the opportunities for illegal undertakings that develop. Given such an opportunity, each member of the large networks can contact partners who are generalists or specialists. Being able to raise capital, and get access other needed resources. In this sense, the structure is very functional. The fluid nature of the structure may also explain the high level of internal violence that the network seems to experience. The lack of a more hierarchical structure means that no one can effectively control the use of violence or mediate disputes. Therefore the lack of formal subgroups will not weaken loyalty to past partners. U.S. authorities are more likely than their Asian counterparts to consider transnational organized crime activities to be the more serious organized crime problems in Asia. This could be explained by different focuses of the two countries, or attributable in some cases to the lack of knowledge and understanding of the local situation by the Americans. The U.S. has always had to depend on outside sources for any information, for any event, to establish an independent viewpoint. The problems of drug production and trafficking, trafficking in women and children for the purpose of prostitution, arms trafficking, and money laundering are all very serious problems in Asia. Americans know these activities have a direct or indirect impact on U.S. interests, undermining the stability and well-being of U.S. ally countries in Asia. The leading organized crime problems in Asia are similar to Russian criminal elements including but not limited to; drug production and trafficking, human trafficking in women and children, links among organized crime in politics with official corruption, and the penetration of organized crime into legitimate businesses. Interesting enough are the responses from Asian representatives, when asked about specific crimes impacting the United States. According to members of the faculty of the Fuzhou Police College in China, the principal forms of transnational crime involving China and the United States are kidnapping and human trafficking. Officials of the Bureau of Investigation of the Ministry of Justice of Taiwan stated the fake IDs being used to gain Taiwanese passports for travel to the United States, are being made by Chinese who are being smuggled here. These crimes are not seen as high priority problems in Asia, human trafficking and smuggling were indeed high-priority issues for most of the U.S. FBI officials indicate that such activities as trafficking in women and children, mostly for sex, trafficking in human beings for the purpose of labor, and illegal immigration were transnational criminal activities of Chinese organized crime groups in the United States. Asian experts do not see this smuggling as an activity of traditional organized crime groups. A top criminal investigator with the Ministry of Public Security in Beijing told researchers that human trafficking was indeed ???organized,??? but that it was not a form of organized crime. He indicated the main destination countries for Chinese women were Japan, Korea, Russia, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. A correspondent in Hong Kong indicated that none of the three most prominent organized crime groups in Hong Kong, the San Yee On, the Wo Shing Wo, and the 14K, are involved in human smuggling or human trafficking. Other authorities in Hong Kong have said trafficking is very limited in Hong Kong, that the vast majority of people moving transnational are smuggled. Human trafficking is one problem for which a seemingly vast difference in priority and perspective between Asian and U.S. authorities. The Asian authorities view the transnational movement of people as mostly smuggling, people wanting to leave China, paying smugglers to transport them to the United States. There is little or no coercion or deception in these cases, part of the reason for the Asian authorities??™ lack of concern. Contrary to the opinions of many in U.S. law enforcement, this study found that the relationship between traditional organized crime groups, such as the triads and the yakuza, and transnational crime is tenuous. Asian authorities in China and Hong Kong indicated that human smuggling, for example, is carried out primarily by loose networks, groups with no ties to organized crime, borne from data from personal interviews with such smugglers. This difference in understanding about who is engaged in transnational crime may account for some of the disparity in priorities between criminal justice agencies in the East and West. Another difficulty has to do with what constitutes transnational crime. Asian authorities are reluctant to treat certain transnational activities as crime because they are beneficial to the local economy, and other people who are involved may not be gangsters or professional criminals. Such perceptual and communication problems pose challenges for collaborative research but are not insurmountable. By characterizing Russia and Asian criminal groups using generic terms, and referring to a variety of Eurasian crime groups, many of which are not Russian. The active Russian criminals in the U.S. are Armenians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, and persons from the Caucasus region of the former Soviet Union: Chechens, Dagestanis, and Georgians. Law enforcement are calling these groups various names from, Russian mafia, Russian mob, to Organizatsya, Bor, Bratva. Some of the group names refer to Russian geographical locations, such as Izmailovskaya, Dagestantsy, Kazanskaya, and Solntsenskaya. In general, most traditional organized crime groups, mafia-like criminal organizations in China, organized gangs in Taiwan, triad societies in Hong Kong and Macau, and jao phor in Thailand are local in scope. Three Chinese organized crime syndicates identified in a recent U.N. study are; the Liu Yong Syndicate, the Zhang Wei Syndicate, and the Liang Xiao Min Syndicate, all were local or regional in their scope, and without cooperative relationships with other organized crime groups. Traditional organized crime groups in Asia are longstanding, pre-existing groups that continue to thrive while transnational crime networks are developed in response to current criminal opportunities. Some of the traditional organized crime groups mentioned above have been in existence in Asia for centuries and are most likely going to continue existence. These groups have names, structure, territory, and a strong attachment to their environment, as a result are handicapped in taking advantage of criminal opportunities that are transnational in nature. The second group: the networks of transnational crime are more likely to emerge around specific opportunities. Very often, a nuclear or an extended family will initiate an operation in response to a new opportunity and people from the same village or at least the same ethnic group who are living in source, transit, and destination countries will be recruited to participate as members of a network that may dissolve after the criminal operation is successfully carried out. This distinction has implications for both research and policy. For research, there is a need to expand the current thinking about the causes of organized crime and about the risks and vulnerabilities that may lead to the creation of criminal markets. There is also a need to better understand how those criminal markets operate in order to provide useful information to shape strategies and tactics to disrupt them. For policy, law enforcement officials need to do more thinking ???out of the box??? of traditional, mafia-like structures in order to effectively combat the crime networks that are dominating transnational organized crime.
The political turmoil of the 21st century and advances in technology make transnational crime a concern for the United States. Increased travel and trade and advances in telecommunications and computer technology have had the unintended effect of providing avenues for the rapid expansion of transnational organized crime activities. Policing objectives in the United States must extend beyond national borders to seek out and target this type of crime. Only through international collaboration and information exchange can the United States develop effective protocol and policies for countering these crimes and mount a serious opposition (Voronin, 2000).REFERENCES
United Nations Centre for Inter-national Crime Prevention, ???Over-view of the 40 Criminal Groups Surveyed,??? Trends in Organized Crime 6 (2) (2000): 131??“135. Zhang and Chin, ???The Declining Significance of Triad Societies in Transnational Illegal Activities,??? 463??“482.The U.S. State Department??™s Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report for 2004.???Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States??? (a 2001 report to NIJ by Janice Raymond and Donna Hughes).???The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico??? (a 2002 report to NIJ by Richard Estes and Neil Weiner).???Survey of Practitioners to Assess the Local Impact of Transnational Crime??? (a 2003 report to NIJ by Abt Associates).Blood Brothers: The Criminal Underworld of Asia by Bertil Lintner (2002).Tri-State Joint Soviet??“Emigre Organized Crime Project 1997: 9??“10.http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/214186.pdfFinckenauer, James O. and Elin J. Waring, Russian Mafia in America, Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998.New York State Organized Crime Task Force, et al., “An Analysis of Russian Emigre Crime,” Transnational Organized Crime 2(2-3) (Summer-Autumn 1996).

History of Us Foreign Policy

Barcelona, May 4 2005[pic]INFORMATION RESOURCE CENTERU.S. CONSULATE GENERAL, BARCELONAIntroductionThe changing conditions at home and abroad made U.S. participation in world affairs after the Civil War (1861-1865) not only more extensive but vastly more significant. The question of when the United States first became a great power is open to debate. That status may date from the Spanish-American War (1898) or from the U.S entry into World War I (1917).1914-1920 Wilsons Fourteen Points The immediate cause of America??™s entry into World War I in April 1917 was the German announcement of unrestricted submarine warfare, and the subsequent sinking of ships with Americans on board. But President Wilson??™s war aims went beyond the defense of U.S. maritime interests. In his War Message to Congress he declared ???our object is to vindicate the principles of peace and justice in the life of the world.??? Wilson used several speeches earlier in the year to sketch out his vision of an end to the war that would bring a ???just and secure peace,??? and not merely ???a new balance of power.??? He then appointed a committee of experts known as The Inquiry to help him refine his ideas for peace. In December 1917 he asked The Inquiry to draw up specific recommendations for a comprehensive peace settlement. Using these recommendations, Wilson presented a program of fourteen points to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. Eight of the fourteen points treated specific territorial issues among the combatant nations. Five of the other six concerned general principles for a peaceful world: open covenants (i.e. treaties or agreements), openly arrived at; freedom of the seas; free trade; reduction of armaments; and adjustment of colonial claims based on the principles of self-determination. The fourteenth point proposed what was to become the League of Nations to guarantee the ???political independence and territorial integrity [of] great and small states alike.??? Wilsons idealism pervades the fourteen points, but he also had more practical objectives in mind: keeping Russia in the war by convincing the Bolsheviks that they would receive a better peace from the Allies; bolstering Allied morale; and undermining German war support. The address was immediately hailed in the United States and Allied nations, and even by Lenin, as a landmark of enlightenment in international relations. Wilson subsequently used the Fourteen Points as the basis for negotiation of the Versailles Treaty that ended the First World War. The Fourteen Points still stand as the most powerful expression of the idealist strain in American diplomacy.1921-1936 Disarmament Efforts Despite its lack of participation in the League of Nations, the United States was at the forefront of extensive efforts at disarmament during the 1920s and 1930s especially to restrict the growth of naval tonnage, considered to be a key? measure of military strength. It helped that the major naval powers–Britain, the United States, and Japan–recognized the crushing financial costs of a naval arms race. Organized and hosted by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes, the first naval disarmament conference was held in Washington the winter of 1921-1922 with eight nations in attendance. Other treaties signed at Washington abolished the two decade old Anglo-Japanese Alliance, endorsed the Open Door policy in China, compelled Japanese withdrawal from Siberia, and allowed the United States access to the Island of Yap. Tensions in the Pacific preceding World War II caused a second conference held in London in 1935-1936, but it failed when Japan abrogated the earlier pacts. In addition to naval disarmament, Secretary of State Frank Kellogg and French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand engineered a pact at the 1927 Geneva conference to outlawed war entirely. This was the high point of interwar disarmament. The Kellogg-Briand Pact, like the Washington and London conferences, failed to prevent the outbreak of another general war. Although American support for these conferences was evidence of a new American internationalism, disarmament itself would not overcome the forces leading to World War II. Stimson Doctrine The policy of expansionism in China pursued by the autonomous Kwangtung Army of Japan accelerated in the late 1920s and early 1930s and became a major concern of the U.S. government. ? On September 18, 1931, Japanese soldiers guarding the South Manchurian Railway blew up part of the track in order to manufacture an excuse to seize Manchuria proper. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson reacted to what he regarded as a violation of international law as well as treaties that the Japanese Government had signed. Since calls for a cessation of hostilities between China and Japan failed and President Herbert Hoover had rejected economic sanctions in principle, Stimson declared in January 1932 that the U.S. Government would not recognize any territorial or administrative changes the Japanese might impose upon China. The Stimson Doctrine was echoed in March 1932 by the Assembly of the League of Nations, which unanimously adopted an anti-Japanese resolution incorporating virtually verbatim the Stimson Doctrine of nonrecognition. ? In short order, Japanese representatives simply walked out of the League, and the Kwangtung Army formalized its conquest of Manchuria. ? When war between Japan and China broke out following a minor clash between military units at the Marco Polo Bridge in 1937, the impotence of the “Stimson Doctrine” became even more apparent. Good Neighbor Policy President Franklin Delano Roosevelt took office determined to improve relations with the nations of Central and South America. Under his leadership the United States emphasized cooperation and trade rather than military force to maintain stability in the hemisphere. In his inaugural address on March 4, 1933, Roosevelt stated: “In the field of world policy I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the good neighbor–the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others.” Roosevelt??™s Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, participated in the Montevideo Conference of December 1933, where he backed a declaration favored by most nations of the Western Hemisphere: “No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another”. In December Roosevelt stated, “The definite policy of the United States from now on is one opposed to armed intervention.” In 1934 at Roosevelt??™s direction the 1903 treaty with Cuba (based on the Platt amendment) that gave the United States the right to intervene to preserve internal stability or independence was abrogated. Although domestic economic problems and World War II diverted attention from the Western Hemisphere, Roosevelt??™s Good Neighbor policy represented an attempt to distance the United States from earlier interventionist policies.1937-1945 Wartime Conferences The first involvement of the United States in the wartime conferences between the Allied nations opposing the Axis powers actually occurred before the nation formally entered World War II. In August 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met secretly and devised an eight-point statement of war aims known as the Atlantic Charter, which included a pledge that the Allies would not accept territorial changes resulting from the war in Europe. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the wartime conferences focused on establishing a second front. ? At Casablanca in January 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to fight until the Axis powers surrendered unconditionally. In a November 1943 meeting in Egypt with Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to a pre-eminent role for China in postwar Asia. The next major wartime conference included Roosevelt, Churchill, and the leader of the Soviet Union, Josef Stalin. Meeting at Tehran following the Cairo Conference, the “Big Three” secured confirmation on the launching of the cross-channel invasion and a promise from Stalin that the Soviet Union would eventually enter the war against Japan. In 1944, conferences at Bretton Woods and Dumbarton Oaks created the framework for international cooperation in the postwar world. ? In February 1945, the “Big Three” met at the former Russian czar??™s summer palace in the Crimea. Yalta was the most important and by far the most controversial of the wartime meetings. Recognizing the strong position that the Soviet Army possessed on the ground, Churchill and an ailing Roosevelt agreed to a number of compromises with Stalin that allowed Soviet hegemony to remain in Poland and other Eastern European countries, granted territorial concessions to the Soviet Union, and outlined punitive measures against Germany, including an occupation and reparations in principle. Stalin did guarantee that the Soviet Union would declare war on Japan within six months. ? The last meeting of the “Big Three” occurred at Potsdam in July 1945, where? the tension that would erupt into the cold war was evident. Despite the end of the war in Europe and the revelation of the existence of the atomic bomb to the Allies, neither President Harry Truman, Roosevelt??™s successor, nor Clement Atlee, who mid-way through the conference replaced Churchill, could come to agreement with Stalin on any but the most minor issues. The most significant agreement was the issuance of the Potsdam Declaration to Japan demanding an immediate and unconditional surrender and threatening Japan with destruction if they did not comply. With the Axis forces defeated, the wartime alliance soon devolved into suspicion and bitterness on both sides. United Nations On January 1, 1942, representatives of 26 nations at war with the Axis powers met in Washington to sign the Declaration of the United Nations endorsing the Atlantic Charter, pledging to use their full resources against the Axis and agreeing not to make a separate peace. At the Quebec Conference in August 1943, Secretary of State Cordell Hull and British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden agreed to draft a declaration that included a call for “a general international organization, based on the principle sovereign equality of all nations.” An agreed declaration was issued after a Foreign Ministers Conference in Moscow in October 1943. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt met with Soviet Premier Josef Stalin in Tehran, Iran, in November 1943, he proposed an international organization comprising an assembly of all member states and a 10-member executive committee to discuss social and economic issues. The United States, Great Britain, Soviet Union, and China would enforce peace as “the four policemen.” Meanwhile Allied representatives founded a set of task-oriented organizations: the Food and Agricultural Organization (May 1943), the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (November 1943), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (April 1944), the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank (July 1944), and the International Civil Aviation Organization (November 1944).
U.S., British, Soviet, and Chinese representatives met at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington in August and September of 1944 to draft the charter of a postwar international organization based on the principle of collective security. They recommended a General Assembly of all member states and a Security Council consisting of the Big Four plus six members chosen by the Assembly. Voting procedures and the veto power of permanent members of the Security Council were finalized at the Yalta Conference in 1945 when Roosevelt and Stalin agreed that the veto would not prevent discussions by the Security Council.
Representatives of 50 nations met in San Francisco April-June 1945 to complete the Charter of the United Nations. In addition to the General Assembly of all member states and a Security Council of 5 permanent and 6 non-permanent members, the Charter provided for an 18-member Economic and Social Council, an International Court of Justice, a Trusteeship Council to oversee certain colonial territories, and a Secretariat under a Secretary General. The Roosevelt administration sought bipartisan support and in September 1943 the Republican Party endorsed U.S. participation in a postwar international organization, after which both houses of Congress overwhelmingly endorsed participation. Roosevelt also sought to convince the public that an international organization was the best means to prevent future wars. The Senate approved the UN Charter on July 28, 1945, by a vote of 89 to 2. The United Nations came into existence on October 24, 1945, after 29 nations had ratified the Charter.1946-1968 National Security Act of 1947 The National Security Act of 1947 mandated a major reorganization of the foreign policy and military establishments of the U.S. Government. The act also established the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which grew out of World War II era Office of Strategic Services and small post-war intelligence organizations. The CIA served as the primary civilian intelligence-gathering organization in the government. Later, the Defense Intelligence Agency became the main military intelligence body. The 1947 law also caused far-reaching changes in the military establishment. The War Department and Navy Department merged into a single Department of Defense under the Secretary of Defense, who also directed the newly created Department of the Air Force. Kennan and Containment George F. Kennan, a career Foreign Service Officer, formulated the policy of ???containment,??? the basic United States strategy for fighting the cold war (1947-1989) with the Soviet Union. Kennan??™s ideas, which became the basis of the Truman administration??™s foreign policy, first came to public attention in 1947 in the form of an anonymous contribution to the journal Foreign Affairs, the so-called ???X-Article.??? ???The main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union,??? Kennan wrote, ???must be that of a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies.??? To that end, he called for countering ???Soviet pressure against the free institutions of the Western world??? through the ???adroit and vigilant application of counter-force at a series of constantly shifting geographical and political points, corresponding to the shifts and maneuvers of Soviet policy.??? Such a policy, Kennan predicted, would ???promote tendencies which must eventually find their outlet in either the break-up or the gradual mellowing of Soviet power.??? Kennan??™s policy was controversial from the very beginning. After much debate, the National Security Council prepared NSC 68, a policy document signed by Truman, calling for a drastic expansion of the U.S. military budget. The paper also expanded containment??™s scope beyond the defense of major centers of industrial power to encompass the entire world. ???In the context of the present polarization of power,??? it read, ???a defeat of free institutions anywhere is a defeat everywhere.??? Containment in the more general sense of blocking the expansion of Soviet influence remained the basic strategy of the United States throughout the cold war. Marshall Plan In the immediate post-World War II period, Europe remained ravaged by war and thus susceptible to exploitation by an internal and external Communist threat. In a June 5, 1947, speech to the graduating class at Harvard University, Secretary of State George C. Marshall issued a call for a comprehensive program to rebuild Europe. Fanned by the fear of Communist expansion and the rapid deterioration of European economies in the winter of 1946-1947, Congress passed the Economic Cooperation Act in March 1948 and approved funding that would eventually rise to over $12 billion for the rebuilding of Western Europe. The Marshall Plan generated a resurgence of European industrialization and brought extensive investment into the region. The Marshall Plan was applied solely to Western Europe, precluding any measure of Soviet Bloc cooperation. The Marshall Plan also institutionalized and legitimized the concept of U.S. foreign aid programs, which have become an integral part of U.S. foreign policy.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Signed in 1949, the treaty, one of the major Western countermeasures against the threat of aggression by the Soviet Union during the cold war, was aimed at safeguarding the freedom of the North Atlantic community. Considering an armed attack on any member an attack against all, the treaty provided for collective self-defense in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. The treaty was also designed to encourage political, economic, and social cooperation. Korean War and Japans Recovery As the cold war came to dominate U.S. foreign policy, America extended security commitments to two nations in Northeast Asia??”the Republic of Korea and Japan. The Department of State under Secretary Dean Acheson forged a series of agreements to build a permanent American presence in the region and support these two nations, creating alliances that have lasted to today. After Japans surrender to the Allied Powers in August 1945, the United States military occupied the defeated nation and began a series of far-reaching reforms designed to build a peaceful and democratic Japan by reducing the power of the military and breaking up the largest Japanese business conglomerates. However, growing concern over Communist power in East Asia, particularly the success of the Chinese Communist Party in its struggle against Chiang Kai-sheks Nationalist forces, led the United States to halt reforms in 1947 and 1948 in order to focus on the economic recovery and political rehabilitation of Japan.
During World War II the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to temporarily divide Korea at the 38th parallel in order oversee the removal of Japanese forces. It soon became clear, however, that neither of the cold war antagonists would permit? its Korea ally to be threatened by unification. The Soviets supported Kim Il Song in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea in the north; the United States backed Syngman Rhee in the Republic of Korea in the south. Nevertheless the United States did not make Korea a key part of its defensive strategy for East Asia, and U.S. forces withdrew from the south in the late 1940s. Assuming that the United States did not consider South Korea of vital interest, Kims army attacked the South in June 1950 almost conquering the entire peninsula. The U.S. military returned, leading a United Nations-authorized force to push the Norths army back above the 38th parallel and beyond. Only in 1953 did the two sides reach an uneasy truce, thus crystallizing the division between North and South that exists today. In 1953 the United States and South Korea signed a mutual security treaty designed to protect this new nation from its neighbor to the north.
U.S. efforts to save South Korea from Communist invasion accelerated Department of State attempts to restore Japan to a respected international position, and make that country a prosperous ally of the United States. Treaty of San Francisco ended the state of war between Japan and 47 of the Allies (most nations allied with the Soviet Union refused to sign), concluded the U.S. Occupation, and excused the Japanese from reparations for the war. On that same day the US and Japan signed the United States-Japanese Security Treaty, allowing the United States to station troops in Japan, and making the Japanese islands into an important facet of Americas global containment structure. Castro, Cuba, and Missiles In early 1961 President John F. Kennedy concluded that Fidel Castro was a Soviet client working to subvert Latin America. After much debate in his administration, Kennedy authorized a clandestine invasion of Cuba by a brigade of Cuban exiles. The brigade hit the beach at the Bay of Pigs on April 17, 1961, but the operation failed within 2 days. On October 22 1961, Kennedy informs the nation there are Russian-built missile sites in Cuba and imposes on October 24 a naval quarantine on all missile equipment being shipped to Cuba; after a U.S. pledge not to invade Cuba and to remove missiles from Turkey, on October 28 the Soviets agree to remove the missiles. Exactly how close the United States and the Soviet Union came to nuclear war over Cuba remains one of the most keenly discussed issues of the cold war. Alliance for Progress Initiative Growing out of the fear of increased Soviet and Cuban influence in Latin America, the 1961-1969 Alliance for Progress was in essence a Marshall Plan for Latin America. The United States pledged $20 billion in assistance (grants and loans) and called upon the Latin American governments to provide $80 billion in investment funds for their economies. It was the biggest U.S. aid program toward the developing world up to that point??”and called for substantial reform of Latin American institutions. A key element of the Alliance was U.S. military assistance to friendly regimes in the region. The Alliance did not achieve all its lofty goals. According to one study, only 2 percent of economic growth in 1960s Latin America directly benefited the poor; and there was a general deterioration of United States-Latin American relations by the end of the 1960s.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
On August 7 1964, U.S. Congress approves the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution authorizing military action in Southeast Asia. The resolution drafted by the administration authorized ???all necessary measures??? to repel attacks against U.S. forces and all steps necessary for the defense of U.S. allies in Southeast Asia. In March 1965, President Johnson sent the first U.S. combat forces to Vietnam and in 1969 the U.S. military had a force of 534,000 men in Vietnam.1969-1989 Ending the Vietnam War Although, newly elected President Richard M. Nixon declared in 1969 that he would continue the American involvement in the Vietnam War in order to end the conflict and secure “peace with honor” for the United States and for its ally, South Vietnam. In January 1969, the United States, governments of South and North Vietnam, and the Viet Cong met for the first plenary session of peace talks in Paris, France. These talks, which began with much hope, moved slowly. They finally concluded with the signing of a peace agreement, the Paris Accords, on January 27, 1973. As a result, the south was divided into a patchwork of zones controlled by the South Vietnamese Government and the Viet Cong. The United States withdrew its forces, although U.S. military advisers remained. The January accords, titled the “Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam,” neither ended the war (except for the United States) nor restored the peace. A little over 2 years later, 30 North Vietnamese divisions conquered the South and restored peace in Vietnam. The American commitment to defend South Vietnam, described as unequivocal by Nixon and Kissinger, had been vitiated by the Watergate scandal and Nixons subsequent resignation. By that time, the Paris Accords seemed memorable only as the vehicle on which the United States rode out of Southeast Asia. Carter and the Camp David Accords The premiere foreign policy achievement of the Carter administration was the signing of the Camp David peace accords. The peace process in the Middle East that began with Henry Kissinger accelerated after President Anwar el-Sadat of Egypt undertook the unprecedented step of traveling to Jerusalem in November 1977. There, he extended an olive branch to the Israeli Government in the form of a peace proposal: the return of occupied lands in exchange for a guarantee of security. Picking up on the initiative, President Jimmy Carter invited Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Begin to the presidential retreat in the Catoctin mountains of Maryland for a series of meetings in September 1978. Two agreements in principle arose from the Camp David meetings. The first included a statement on eventual self-government for the West Bank and Gaza Strip areas as well as the inclusion of Jordanian and Palestinian representatives in future talks. The second agreement consisted of diplomatic recognition of Israel by Egypt in exchange for the return of territories occupied since 1967. As negotiations toward a formal treaty ensued, Carter continued his personal involvement in the process. On March 26, 1979, Sadat, Carter, and Begin signed the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty, which formalized the specific details of the arrangements agreed to at Camp David. However, the Camp David Accords and the subsequent treaty did not include a comprehensive settlement of the problems in the Middle East. A substantive peace framework among Israel, its other Arab neighbors, and the Palestinian Liberation Organization would not emerge until the 1990s. Panama Canal Treaty The Panama Canal Treaties of 1977-1978 meant to rectify a long-term, contentious issue in United States-Latin American relations. In 1903 U.S. military force supported Panamanian revolutionaries in their quest for independence from Colombia, and ensured U.S. control, for a century, of a strip of land in the center of Panama for the Canal. By the 1960s, Panamanian calls for sovereignty over the Canal Zone had reached high pitch, and United States relations with Panama deteriorated. President Carter saw returning the Panama Canal as key to improving U.S. relations in the hemisphere and the developing world. Although opponents of the Treaty returning the Canal to Panama by 2000 criticized Carter??™s efforts on the basis of “We Built it, We Paid for it, Its Ours,” the Treaties narrowly passed the Senate in April 1978. Reagan Doctrine The ???Reagan Doctrine??? was used to characterize the Reagan administration??™s (1981-1988) policy of supporting anti-Communist insurgents wherever they might be. In his 1985 State of the Union address, President Ronald Reagan called upon Congress and the American people to stand up to the Soviet Union, what he had previously called the ???Evil Empire???: “We must stand by all our democratic allies. And we must not break faith with those who are risking their lives??”on every continent, from Afghanistan to Nicaragua??”to defy Soviet-supported aggression and secure rights which have been ours from birth.”
Breaking with the doctrine of ???Containment,” established during the Truman administration??”President Ronald Reagan??™s foreign policy was based on John Foster Dulles??™ ???Roll-Back??? strategy from the 1950s in which the United States would actively push back the influence of the Soviet Union. To that end, the Reagan administration focused much of its energy on supporting proxy armies to curtail Soviet influence. Among the more prominent examples of the Reagan Doctrine??™s application, in Nicaragua, the United States sponsored the contra movement in an effort to force the leftist Sandinista government from power. And in Afghanistan, the United States provided material support to Afghan rebels??”known as the mujahadeen??”helping them end Soviet occupation of their country. Fall of Communism On the night of November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall??”the most potent symbol of the cold-war division of Europe??”came down. The collapse of the Berlin Wall was the culminating point of the revolutionary changes sweeping East Central Europe in 1989. The collapse of communism in East Central Europe and the Soviet Union marked the end of the cold war. The U.S. long-term policies before the fall of communism, were containing Soviet expansion while encouraging democratic reform in Central and Eastern Europe through scientific and cultural exchanges and the information policy (e.g., Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty). 1990-Present Gulf War Coalition In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. The United Nations, led by the U.S. and with the backing of other UN members, condemned the invasion, demanded Iraq??™s withdrawal, and imposed an economic blockade. A U.S.-dominated coalition including Arab nations and traditional U.S. allies gave Iraq an ultimatum to withdraw from Kuwait. When Iraq refused, large-scale bombing campaign began in January 1991, followed by a March invasion that quickly liberated Kuwait.
Dayton Peace Accords
The 1992-95 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina ended with the U.S. crucial participation in brokering the 1995 Dayton Accords.? After leading the diplomatic and military effort to secure the? Dayton agreement, the United States has continued to lead the effort to ensure its implementation. U.S. troops participate in the Bosnia Peacekeeping force (SFOR), and the United States has donated hundreds of millions of dollars to help with reconstruction, humanitarian assistance, economic development, and military reconstruction in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
NATO Expansion
Europe ranked high on Clinton??™s second-term agenda, with the focus on European security and unity, especially through the expansion of NATO. On May 14 1997, Russia and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) came to an historic agreement, paving the way for NATO expansion. ???[T]he fundamental goal of [expanding NATO] is to build, for the first time, a peaceful, free and undivided trans-Atlantic community,??? said Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright. ???It is to extend eastward to Central Europe and the former Soviet Union the peace and prosperity that Western Europe has enjoyed for the last 50 years.??? NATO approved membership for Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, made effective in 1999.
War on Terrorism
In the immediate aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the Bush administration turned its attention to a war against terrorism. In response, the United States under the Bush Administration launched large- scale military attacks against Al Qaeda terrorist camps and the Taliban government in Afghanistan. The U.S. supported the emergence of a broad-based government, representative of all Afghans and actively encouraged a UN role in the national reconciliation process in Afghanistan. Since October 2001, the UN has played a key role in Afghanistan through the UN Assistance Mission to Afghanistan (UNAMA), including spearheading efforts to organize the Afghan presidential elections held in October 2004.
September 11 marked the start of a new era in American strategic thinking. Before September 11, the Bush administration had been in the process of developing a new national security strategy. During the years from 1989 to 2001, a multiplicity of lesser dangers existed — for example, ethnic conflict, weapons proliferation, terrorism, political and financial instability, the impact of climate changes, infectious diseases, and poverty. While no one danger proved dominant, the United States did find itself drawn into a number of military interventions in response to local or regional conflicts, as in the case of Iraqs invasion of Kuwait (1990-91), Somalia (1991-92), Haiti (1994), Bosnia (1995), and Kosovo (1999). Since September 11 all this changed. Terrorism was no longer one among a number of assorted dangers to the United States, but a fundamental threat to the U.S., its way of life, and its vital interests.
Middle East Initiatives
The Roadmap for peace, developed by the United States, in cooperation with Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations (the Quartet), was presented to Israel and the Palestinian Authority on April 30, 2003. The plan is a performance-based, goal-driven plan, with clear phases, timelines, and benchmarks. It involves reciprocal steps by the two parties in the political, security, economic, and humanitarian fields. The destination is a final and comprehensive settlement of the Israel-Palestinian conflict. U.S. Middle East policy comprises basically four elements: a Israeli-Palestinian peace, a free Iraq, the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI) and the establishment of a Free Trade Area in this region.
In June 2004, President Bush led the G-8 in establishing the “Partnership for Progress and a Common Future with the Region of the Broader Middle East and North Africa ” to support political, economic, and social reform in the region. The Plan of Support also commits the G-8 to work in partnership with the regions governments, business leaders, and civil society to “intensify and expand” existing programs, focusing on promoting democracy, improving education and creating jobs and economic growth.? ? 
After the Gulf War, the UN Security Council required the regime to surrender its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and submit to UN inspections. When the Baath regime refused to fully cooperate with the UN inspections, the Security Council employed sanctions to prevent further WMD development and compel Iraqi adherence to international obligations. Coalition forces enforced no-fly zones in southern and northern Iraq to protect Iraqi citizens from attack by the regime and a no-drive zone in southern Iraq to prevent the regime from massing forces to threaten or again invade Kuwait. Citing the possession of weapons of mass destruction, links to terrorism, and Sadam Hussein??™s despotism, a U.S.-led coalition removed the Baath regime in March and April 2003. In March 20, 2003, President Bush launched a war on Iraq, bringing an end to more than 12 years of Iraqi defiance of UN Security Council resolutions. The coalition, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations quickly established aid systems, in hopes of preventing general humanitarian crises. In May 1, 2003, President Bush declared an end to major combat operations. Despite the continuing internal security incidents, the rebuilding of basic infrastructures and services has been proceeding steadily since 2003 with foreign support. The emergency relief and reconstruction aid delivered to Iraq during the 12 months since the fall of Saddam Hussein was the biggest U.S. foreign aid program since the Marshall Plan. In October 2003, U.S. Congress approved the $18.4 billion Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund.Information Compiled By The Information Resource CenterConsulate General Of The United States Of AmericaBarcelonaTel. 93 280 22 27 ext. 262 ??“ E-mail: [email protected]://www.embusa.es/ircbarna/ircbarcsp.html———————–HISTORICAL TIMELINE OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICYSources:
-Timeline of U.S. Diplomatic History. U.S. Department of State.
– Country Background Notes. U.S. Department of State.
– Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. 2nd Edition. Charles Scribner?s Sons,
– The American Presidency: A Glorious Burden. National Museum of American
History. Smithsonian Institution. http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/
– The Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier International, 1999.
– The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press, 2005.
– Foreign Policy and Public Opinion, CQ Researcher. July 15, 1994.
– Expanding NATO, CQ Researcher, May 16, 1997.
– September 11: One Year Later. Electronic Journal of the U.S. Department of State.
September 2002. http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0902/ijge/ijge0902.htm
– A Year in Iraq. U.S. Agency for International Development, 2004.

Comparitive History of Arkansas 1974-1874

History Proves Changes Bring about SamenessByMark SmithArkansas History Final History recorded in the writings of mankind is interesting to study for the benefit of the modern social student. The study of history lends to more questions than answers in most instances and can rarely be capsulated on the page of writers to define the complete dynamic for the observed and researched time period. In this paper I will reveal a comparative study between two time periods, and although the manners and social customs of the people are different, the underlying trends of social hierarchy remain the same. This paper will cover two distinct time slices in American history, specifically Arkansas history. Due to time constraints available for the researching of this project, many of the finer details for specific subjects will not adequately be covered, but a general defining of the stasis of Arkansas life will be conveyed for the time period of 1874 and a comparative slice of time will be written about in 1974. Both 1874 and 1974 are years rich in historical content as recorded by the Arkansas Gazette. If time permitted I would have liked to consult the other less known public conduits to news of the day. The oldest surviving newspaper west of the Mississippi was the claim for the Arkansas Gazette before the buyout by the rival Arkansas Democrat on October 18, 1991. This foundational harbinger of news reporting for the general public in Arkansas is the source document consulted for the essaical content.
The year of 1874 in Arkansas history finds the population in anticipation of the state recovering from the political battles of southern delegates to regain control of the state from insurgent carpet bagging legislative puppets from the greater stage of Washington. The year of 1874 will mark the end of Republican power in the state of Arkansas due largely to the legislative work pushed through by Elisha Baxter. Baxter allowed the Southern sympathizers to regain the power of the vote, and because of this action, the infrastructure building government the people of Arkansas had experienced under the governing of Republicans would come to an end. The people of the state, still recovering from the devastating effects of the Civil War, were enjoying a new boom in the agricultural climate due mainly to the ???king??? crop of the south, cotton. In January of 1874 cotton was traded at fourteen cents per pound. Markets were available by steamboat and locomotive transport. Depending on where you lived in the state, the rates for moving agricultural products to markets fluctuated some times as much as $1.25 per bale as noted in the Gazette Jan 9, 1874. Fulton was getting better shipping prices by rail transport than Arkadelphia, which was sixty miles closer to the final New Orleans destination.
Arkansas??™s political turmoil reached a critical mass in April 1874. Joseph Brook, who lost the election of 1872, was still wanting the office of the governor and was willing to do anything to secure the office. Only two years after the election, Elisha Baxter had isolated himself from his political allies in the state of Arkansas and would suffer the ill fate of his steely political backbone. Baxter is regarded, by some opinions of the time period, as a man of character because he held his position and worked to fulfill his vows during election. The platform was regarded by some in the Republican Party as campaign rhetoric only to be abandoned after the election, but Baxter did not see the election platform the same way. Because Elisha Baxter was a man of character and followed through on the campaign promises, he was isolated politically and the result is Joseph Brooks taking the governor??™s office by force. Armed conflicts resulted and only intervention by the federal government resolved the issue in the state of Arkansas. By the fall election of 1874, order and peaceable government operations were restored to the state of Arkansas with the election of Democratic candidate Augustus Garland, who was often remembered as the best governor the state had ever seen.
In the year of 1874, Arkansas also saw the meeting of a new constitutional convention. The delegates met and worked out a document that was eventually voted into existence by a three to one majority. Democratic rule in the state would never look back, and the reborn Arkansas began to crawl into the national procession of Southern states fulfilling the part of cooperation with the federal government. This document, which still is used by the state in the present time, is lengthy and limits the power of the governor??™s office drastically. Some of the historians attribute this to the mistrust of the recently installed democratic congress toward the past republican administration. Whatever the reasoning the document in amended form is still used today despite efforts to replace the document in 1918, 1970, and 1980.
Life in Arkansas was not limited to concern of the political turbidity of 1874. Citizens of Little Rock specifically, had entertainment choices ranging from theatre, social clubs, and horse racing to name a few. The theatres were filled with traveling minstrel shows and dramatic plays to allow the community persons outlets from the day-to-day drudgery of the agricultural society. Once, Woodruff scolded the theatre owners for not getting the Lydia Thompson Troupe into the town??™s exhibition halls. Arkansas missed this opportunity to experience the burlesque because later in the year the troupe moved back to England and never appeared in the United States again. Tickets to these distractions from everyday life could be purchased at the local bookstores or at the drugstores. Horse racing was big business in the state and enjoyed groups dedicated to the advancement of the livestock involved. Social groups posted meeting times and locations in the statewide publication. One thing missing from the time period is sports coverage. Although a snippet of coverage was found for a traveling women??™s team playing in the Little Rock area.
Arkansas like the rest of the country recovering from the dramatic events of 1873 was in economic depression. Having never fully recovered from the ravaging effects of the civil war, the state issued promissory notes known as scrip. This state scrip was used to pay state and other government employees due to the absence of capitol in the states governmental coffers. The practice of issuing scrip started much before the year of 1874, but in 1874 the supreme court of the great state of Arkansas was dealing with the problem citizens of the state wanting to pay taxes with the valueless paper currency. Both parties, the state government and the citizens, involved in the process were void of the national currency, the greenback, which was no longer backed by silver, but gold only. Money seemed to be of concern to the populous of Arkansas in 1874. With the recent economic problems of 1873 still in the minds of Arkansans, another problem existed for them, capitol. The U.S. government had recently removed silver from backing the dollar or greenback, as it is commonly referred to in 1874. For Arkansas going to the gold standard was not a huge set back because there simply was not enough of the paper currency to go around. At some time before 1874 and post reconstruction the Arkansas legislature founded the Arkansas scrip to replace the lack of United States currency available to the citizens of the state. The greenback replacement was traded bought and sold at the local banks. Not only the state issued scrip, but also counties, and cities issued the paper notes guarantying payment. State banks were taxed on the income from the circulation on scrip currency, and the supreme courts ruled in March of 1874 that taxes could not be paid with the scrip. Ironic because state and county employees were often paid in the scrip, which left them holding a currency, which until late March was returning thirty cents on the dollar. By the end of March and June the currency was up in value to around fifty cents on the dollar and many ads were placed in the Gazette for the purchase of any held by the public. Woodruff even claims to have burned over $4000.00 dollars worth of city scrip on night and the resulting smoke smelling ???monkeyish???.
Travel with in the state continued to be problematic for the people living in the boarders of the state. Roads in the city of Little Rock were often reported to be in poor condition because of rain. It seems the dirt roads of the city were impassable tracts of mud after the spring rains in the temperament climate of springtime in Arkansas. Commercial transportation did get some boost in the year of 1874, mostly due to the influx of infrastructure being built by Northern business to access the mineral and agricultural resources of the South. Arkansas boasts the completion of two railroad bridges during 1874. One such project across the Arkansas River that was completed in January was simply referred to as ???the bridge.??? The other project completed was close to Fulton, Arkansas. The railroads in Arkansas were incomplete from Ft. Smith to Little Rock and advertisements in the paper boast a close connection between the track sections, which is relevant when thinking about the four-hour connection boasted. The ride between rail sections was done by ???four horse carriage rides.??? Considering the condition of the roads in the well traveled city of Little Rock, one can only surmise the ???comfort??? endured while making the connection. Regardless of the comfort levels for the transportation in Arkansas, the state was making progress in the accessibility to regional and national markets for the agricultural products in the state.
Religion in the state of Arkansas was of very significant importance to the people of the day, at least the educated who could read, because the papers from 1874 are covered in various tidbits of local news relating to baptisms, conversions, meeting times, and other displays of prominence. St. Andrew??™s provided to be of both religious and social importance. Local advertisements for social meetings taking place at the oldest church building still remaining standing in Little Rock are duly noted. Also the Episcopal Church began a foundation for a building on the corner of 5th and Scott streets. One conversion mentioned taking place by the Church of Christ speaks of an erring brother being allowed back into the fellowship after a ???very moving testimony??? one that lasted for a very lengthy time and resulted in many tears. What is not certain is the overall populations??™ regular attendance to religious ceremonies during 1874 in Arkansas.
Arkansas saw a troubling year in politics in 1874, only to be resolved late in the year with a new election. Governor Garland stabilized the political movement for the state and appears to achieve prominence and statesmanship just at the right time. Arkansas would continue to grow and develop as a state in the United States of America and by the time period we will look at next, many things had changed.
The next time period we will look at in the history of Arkansas is 1974. Many of the transportation issues of the 1800??™s had been overcome, but Arkansas was still struggling to become a leader in the nation in capitol for investments. The currency problems of the state were solved like many states in the south, and all states now were using the national currency, no longer called greenbacks. The political turmoil of the state continued to be reported in the papers. The country as a whole was recovering from a very unpopular war in Vietnam, and a president was indicted with charges of wrongdoing. One of the most famous incidents was recorded in American politics this year, Watergate. Women??™s rights seem to be at the core of the political tones in the state as well as the nation. People of color are still fighting for rights in a country that has legislated the fact that they have rights. Drugs are something new in the state compared to 1874 as a problem. Arkansas had grown by leaps and bounds by 1974, but still had problems to overcome.
Arkansas like the rest of the country in 1974 was adjusting to the effects of inflation, which limited the available capitol for investment within the boarders of the state. Unlike 1874, the national currency was available for use within Arkansas, but the currency was losing value. Local infrastructure projects being bid in 1974 for award in 1975 were cautioned that the value of the projects would not be the same due to the slipping currency value. Not only was inflation hitting the state coffers, but also large corporate interest in the state was experiencing the pinch on black ink and profitability. The energy providers for the state, Arkla Gas and Arkansas Power and Light, ask the governments for the ability to raise rates to the customers in Arkansas to off set inflation setbacks. Interesting is the case of Arkla??™s billing practices in Jonesboro. It seems that the mayor was petitioned by the citizens of the city of Jonesboro to investigate the increase in bills to customers of Arkla in his city. After the investigation, the mayor suggested that Arkla refund the billed money to the people of his city, and not only that, but that the infrastructure of the delivery system for providing the natural gas to the city of Jonesboro be replaced due to the unsafe nature of the system.
The colleges and universities in Arkansas saw a boost in 1974. The school in Russellville, Arkansas Technical College, received a ten year accreditation renewal in 1974 which was the maximum allowed. Of interest, UALR received and installed the largest telescope in the state on top of Stabler Hall. The funds for the installation were provided from a grant that totaled $29,000.00. Nabholtz construction installed the piece of scientific equipment, and the project was over seen by associate professor of physics Dr. Lawrence Coleman. Not all news for UALR during 1974 was positive. The university experienced the need to defend one of their professors during this time period. The legislative body of Arkansas tried to remove assistant history professor Dr. Grant Cooper from his teaching position because he was politically associated with the Socialist party. The amended Arkansas constitution would not allow the state to pay a person of the communist party wages from state moneys. UALR in his defense allowed Dr. Cooper to continue to teach without pay for the final three weeks of the semester, which was against the demands of removal of the congressional body of Arkansas.
The public school systems of Arkansas also saw a boost in expansion in 1974. After the Central High crisis of the 1960??™s, segregation remained in the fore fount of the minds of the people associated with public schools in the state. 1974 saw rezoning of districts to ensure equal representation of both white and black students within the student populations. Ten new schools were being worked on within the Little Rock school district alone, and new techniques were being utilized at the newly opened David O??™Dodd School. This format of learning allowed students to progress at their rate of retention without disrupting the students that did not catch on as fast.
Learning and teaching was at the forefront of one man??™s mind during this time. Teaching is one of those professions without end, even after school is over a teacher continues to teach those around them. One such man was Dr. A.B. Weatherington from Arkadelphia. He started Ouachita College and lived a life of teaching, having started in the 1920??™s in a one-room schoolhouse. The lessons he taught in 1974 are of the most importance to this recording of historical data. He helped a generation understand that desegregation is a positive thing. He taught that the diversity of peoples and thought brings about new ideas. He was clearly a visionary teacher and leader in 1974.
A discussion about leaders and visionaries of 1974 would not be complete without discussing one man in particular, which changed the history of Arkansas forever. Bill Clinton was a law professor at the University of Arkansas, who was aspiring to take the third district congressional seat from John Paul Hamerschmit. Two items noted in the Arkansas Gazette in 1974 were his outlines of political thought for both the state and national political platforms. He suggested that Nixon, who was bargaining with the Russian diplomacy for a reduction in nuclear weapons, was bargaining from a position of weakness because of the turmoil of the Watergate incident. Impeachment was in front of the national leader, Nixon, and without resolution of this matter, the United States would not see improvement in this area. He also outlined education reform for the state of Arkansas and said without it the state would continue to decline in national rankings. He also demonstrated his grasp of economic situations by the understanding of the effect of inflation for the populous of the sate of Arkansas and suggested the rate of inflation was like having a five percent reduction in pay for the working class.
The rights of black Americans was still a struggle in 1974, and one example of that in the state would come from the family of Donnie C. Williams. He and his wife filed a lawsuit to live in the newly developed community of Lakewood. Blacks were not the only persons discriminated against in 1974, women also found themselves in the court systems battling for the protected rights in the United States constitution. A female employee working at the ???Tracks Inn??? in Little Rock found herself with out a job after refusing to serve a customer after he ???grabbed her genitals.??? She then petitioned the courts about the wrongful termination of herself because the company policy allowed her in the past to refuse service to individuals who participate in such behavior. Interesting enough the duplicity of society can be seen in Arkansas with the state being recognized in the top ten of elected black officials, and the appointing of Mrs. Mary P. Davis to the directors seat for the school systems mentally retarded division. . Of note in the article she attended mostly black universities and received high degrees from them and then thrown in at the bottom of the article ???she attended the U of A too.??? Almost to say that she only received a quality education while attending the U of A, not the Black colleges she received her degrees from.
Entertainment in the state of Arkansas was much different in 1974 than in 1874. The theater had been replaced with the motion picture and radio. The paper boasts the return of the electrifying band ZZ Top. The summer of 1974 saw the release of ???461 Ocean Boulevard??? by Eric Clapton. On the big screen Paul Newman was in ???the Sting??? and Jack Nickleson played in ???The Last Detail???. Sports were a much larger reported item of interest in 1974. The Cincinnati Reds reported having problems in the clubhouse because the players returned from the winter layoff with long hair. The clean cuts that fans were accustomed to would no longer be seen on players like Johnny Bench, and Pete Rose. Arkansas also moved legislative efforts to preserve land from being disturbed by development. After an initial refusal of the legislation to vote to fund the protection of such land, Governor Bumpers allocated funds from another source to secure the natural state of the areas protected. Drugs also appeared to be a pass time for members of the community living in Arkansas, but the reports are negative in nature coming from the papers. One young lady of 29 was arrested and charged for selling LSD. Drug gangs in the schools reportedly attack teachers in the Little Rock school district.
Comparatively the two time periods have very unique problems in relation to each other. In 1874 the state was recovering from a civil war and the country as a whole was searching for an identity that wouldn??™t be realized until the industrial revolution of the 1940??™s. Arkansas in 1874 was, like most of the south, barren of capitol for investment to expand industrial investment. The recently freed black culture was searching for an identity in the state and was hindered by the bitter southern whites. Little had changed for the black culture in the South in 1974, which is amazing considering the work done by the leaders of the civil rights movements in the 1960??™s. Women who struggled in the 1800??™s were still fighting for a place setting at the table of equality in the state in 1974. Politics in the state had stabilized by 1974, but the old way of politics remained in the state. Networks of political allies remained true to the party lines and little movement was made for the common good of the people. 1974 was a year with it??™s own financial troubles with mounting inflation, and a president facing impeachment. For all the differences between the two time periods of 1874 and 1974 one-thing remains constant. Politicians seek the interest of government and big business. Minority and common peoples must fight for rights even after legislative work is in place to remedy the realized wrongs, and change is coming weather we like it or not, history proves it.

History of the Playstation

I decided to do my speech on the history of a gaming system and how it??™s evolved from when it 1st started till where it??™s at now. I will be detailing each system that has come out in differing detail as some have more to offer then others. Another thing I might bring up is a Magazine that has spawned from the systems it??™s self about them showing info about them and up-coming and already out games.Systems.The Play Station OneThis was the 1st of them to be made concepts date back as early as 1986.
The system was original brought to Sony, by Nintendo to work as a group effort but after some conflicts of contract, Nintendo re-read through the old contract years later and noticed it gave Sony way to much in terms of rights and so on thus canceling the deal with them.From that Sony produced the 1st Play stations only about 200 or so of them were actually made, the exact number has been lost with time. Seeing that Sony had made the console from the base of the Original Specs, Nintendo decided to sue on breach of contract. Nintendo won the case and from that they gained the rights to all of the to all their games that could be played on it as well as some of the ones that Sony would have had. They also were to receive a bulk of the profits.As well as some other info on that since there are more systems to cover I??™ll move on.The Play Station 2This would be Sony??™s next Generation Console and by far one outstanding for it??™s time.
The project for the Console was announced in 1999 in the month of March. The first systems were released one year later in Japan. The console would go global over the next year spreading all over from North America to Australasia. As it stands the Ps2 is the best selling console out to date as of 2009 it has sold over 140 Million units. The system had three main competitors the Saga Dream Cast and the X-Box by Microsoft as well as Nintendo??™s GameCube.The Play Station PortableThe Play station Portable (officially abbreviated PSP) is a handheld game console manufactured and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. Development of the console was announced during E3 2003, and it was unveiled on May 11, 2003 at a Sony press conference before E3 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, and in the PAL region on September 1, 2005.The PlayStation Portable is the first handheld video game console to use an optical disc format, Universal Media Disc (UMD), as its primary storage medium.
Other distinguishing features of the console include its large viewing screen, robust multi-media capabilities, and connectivity with the PlayStation 3, other PSPs, and the Internet.Sales of the PSP have (with cyclical exceptions) lagged behind its main competitor, the Nintendo DS. Nevertheless, the console is “the most successful non-Nintendo handheld game system ever sold”. After the release of a remodeled, slimmer, and lighter version of the PlayStation Portable, titled Slim & Lite, in early September 2007, sales quadrupled in the United Kingdom the following week and increased by nearly 200% in North America for the month of October. The Slim & Lite had a minor redesign including a new screen and inbuilt microphone, and has since been followed by the PSP Go.Finally the Play Station 3 Aka Ps3
The PlayStation 3 (officially abbreviated as PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment, and the successor to the PlayStation 2 as part of the PlayStation series. The PlayStation 3 competes with Microsofts Xbox 360 and Nintendos Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles.A major feature that distinguishes the PlayStation 3 from its predecessors is its unified online gaming service, the PlayStation Network, which contrasts with Sonys former policy of relying on video game developers for online play. Other major features of the console include its robust multimedia capabilities, connectivity with the PlayStation Portable, and its use of a high-definition optical disc format, Blu-ray Disc, as its primary storage medium. The PS3 was also the first Blu-ray 2.0-compliant Blu-ray player on the market.The PlayStation 3 was first released on November 11, 2006 in Japan, November 17, 2006 in North America and South America, and March 23, 2007 in Europe and Oceania. Two SKUs were available at launch: a basic model with a 20 GB hard drive (HDD), and a premium model with a 60 GB hard drive and several additional features (the 20 GB model was not released in Europe or Oceania). Since then, several revisions have been made to the consoles available models, most notably with the release of a new slim model in September 2009 to coincide with rebranding of the console and its logo.

Comparition Essay

Eating fresh food or canned food
Eating is an activity that we as humans do at least twice a day. We live in a world where the variety of food is immense, and we are responsible for what we eat. We decide what we are about to eat and how it will affect our bodies. We can choose between eating fresh food or canned food, and also we can compare the differences between fresh food and canned food. The three main differences are flavor, health benefits, and cost.
The most notable difference between these two kinds of foods is the flavor. Fresh foods have great flavor and taste way better than canned food, this because fresh foods keep all their natural conditions and its aroma. In contrast, canned foods lack a lot of its flavor characteristics because there are some other chemical products added to the natural foods. For instance, the producers used to add more sugar to a canned of salad fruit to make the product sweet instead of leaving its natural sweetness. Canned food does not preserve the food flavor due to the fact that the preservation process uses many chemicals and high boiling temperature causing the flavor to fade and looses almost all the natural flavor. Fresh food has natural essence and aroma that makes you taste the savor of the food, in addition gives more flavor to your receipts. So if we want to eat a tasty, and fresh food, we have to eat non-proceed food or canned food.
Comparing both types of foods we notice another difference. There is a health factor that is negatively affected by consuming canned food. Canned foods lose some of the original fresh food nutrients when stored, and also it has to be tinned with many conservatives and chemical factors that prolong the shelf life and apparent freshness of the food but could also become toxic if consumed too often. Furthermore, canned food contains high amount of sodium which is one of the principal chemicals that causes diabetes in humans. On the other hand, fresh foods are healthier for our body. As fresh foods are not proceeded and do not go under any storing process, it keeps all its nutrients and vitamins when it is fresh. Even thought, fresh foods begin losing vitamins as soon as they get picked, they are healthier than canned food for the only reason that fresh food does not contain semi toxic preservatives. In fact, fresh foods provide more nutrients and vitamins which make to be healthier than canned food.
Yet another difference between these two types of foods is the cost. Canned foods are much cheaper than fresh foods. Fresh food cost more because they are more sensitive at the time of harvest, and they can get smashed easily. Besides, fresh food last lest than canned food so the markets make the cost higher for the process that takes them to harvest fresh food. Canned food is really cheap, it contains chemicals and other preservatives that make the amount to increase and produce large quantity at low prices. Even though, the price of canned food is way cheap is better to always consume fresh foods.
As we can see it comes down to a personal choice, based on the time each person has, the money and the importance he/she gives to his/her nutrition and health. Therefore it is important that you consider your possibilities and choose the best type of foods for your convenience and lifestyle. Fresh foods can bring you a healthy body, better taste food and better lifestyle or canned food brings you easy life, save you money, but not good taste.

History of the Ku Klux Klan

Historical Fiction Mini-Project
In the winter of 1865-1866, the Confederate Army veterans based in Pulaski, Tennessee formed the group Ku Klux Klan, designed primarily as a social group. The name was an adaptation from the word ???kyklos???, Greek for circle and clan from English. The title Grand Wizard was reserved for the leader of the organization, the first being General Nathan B. Forrest. The Klan was the ???Invisible Empire of the South??? during the Nashville convention in the summer of 1867. Other names were used for junior officers in the organization including Grand Cyclops, Grand Dragon, and Grand Titan (Gitlin 12)
The members of the group chose to dress in sheets and robes to disguise their identity and hence evade the federal troops. The attire also served to frighten black people. However, with time, the organization evolved into a terrorist group carrying out the orders of the Democratic Party while trying to maintain white supremacy. Their mode of operation was seeking to destroy Congressional Reconstruction mainly by killing blacks and also the whites affiliated to Republican politics or in favor of offering education to the black children. They burnt chases while at the same time making many flee their homes. In 1867, probably due to the unwillingness or inability of the local law enforcement officers to stop the Klan, the Force Bill was passed by Congress. This bill allowed the federal government to prosecute any members of the Klan. The prosecutions and convictions that followed wee not many since only a few individuals were punished but this proved sufficient since it broke up the activities of the Klan (Gitlin 17)
In 1915, however, the Klan was reformed by William Simmons in Stone Mountain, Georgia as a Protestant fraternal society. It perpetuated atrocities against the blacks, the Jews, immigrants, as well as the Roman Catholics. Its expansion was rapid, recruiting about two member??™s country wide. It further employed use of political force besides tortures, murders, and burning crosses to assert its authority. However, leadership wrangles and public outcry of its violence eventually weakened its influence. Attempts to revive it include during the era of Civil Rights which failed. It is currently a small organization that champions for fundamentalist Christian theology and white supremacy. However, the Klan was historically significant especially due to their contribution to continued slavery in the form of share cropping and racism ( Gitlin 56).
There are various incidences in which the Ku Klux Klan appears in the story of the historical book ???Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry???. The ideologies of the Ku Klux Klan are represented in the discriminatory practices in the provision of education. There were different schools for the colored and the whites. The schools attended by the blacks??™ children were largely underdeveloped while those owned by the whites received all the resources. For instance, the black children had to walk to and from school while the whiter children had a bus to carry them. Further, there was the incident whereby the black children are issued with old books, presumably after they have been thrown away by the white children. This incident relating to Little Man or Clayton Chester displays the depth of racism in the education system of the time.
The Klan is variously referred to as the nightriders or the night men. A character in the book, Mr. Wallace is believed to be a member of this group that perpetuates atrocities against the blacks and hence Papa, a black elderly man warns his children against playing around his shop. Further, a character Mr. Berry who talked to a Caucasian woman got himself into trouble after members of the Klan did not approve such socialization between different races. They thus trailed him and caught up with him when he was out of gas. They poured tar on him and set him ablaze. Such was the racism that the Ku Klux Klan perpetuated against the black members of the society.
The characters in the book were to a great length negatively impacted on by the Klan as revealed in their speech. For instance, Papa tells the children that: “The Wallace??™s did that, children. They poured kerosene over Mr. Berry and his nephews and lit them afire.”(Beech and Taylor 98). By this, he was warning them about the dangers of the Ku Klux Klan.
Mama also explains to Cassie her views of the problem and her feelings of being treated as a slave. She says, ???So now, even though seventy years have passed since slavery, most white people still think of us as they did back then-that we??™re not as good as they are-and people like Mr. Simms hold on to that belief harder than some other folks because they have little else to hold on to. For him to believe that he is better than we are makes him think that he??™s important simply because he??™s white.??? (Beech and Taylor 129).[pic][pic]
[pic]Works citedLinda Beech, Mildred D. Taylor. Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry. New York: Scholastic Inc.,
Gitlin, Marty. The Ku Klux Klan: a guide to an American subculture. California: ABC-CLIO,

Comparisson Essay

Air Traffic Controlling Air traffic controlling is one of the most stressful jobs in America. This job has a lot of traits needed to succeed. You need to be able to stay focused, concentrate, and be able to take the stress. Two of the sources that were used were The Bureau of Labor Statistics and Vocational Bibliographies. These sources have good information but different viewpoints of the same topic.
In the first article at The Bureau of Labor Statistics it explains a lot of information and details in the article. It also shows how the work environment is quoted here,
During busy times, controllers must work rapidly and efficiently. Total concentration is required to keep track of several planes at the same time and to make certain that all pilots receive correct instructions. The mental stress of being responsible for the safety of several aircraft and their passengers can be exhausting.
This shows how stressful this job is. Within this article it also talks about the education and training needed to qualify for this job. It shows how you have three main paths through the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense, or the general public. It also explains other qualifications needed to join quoted here ???These applicants must have 3 years of progressively responsible full-time work experience, have completed a full 4 years of college, or a combination of both???. This article was very helpful in the research of this topic.
In the second article from Vocational Bibliographies it explained more about a day in the life of an Air Traffic Controller. This article talked about how Air Traffic Controllers start off a day and how they feel in their work environment stated here
???The stress level in the tower, especially when we??™re very busy, can be very high. We??™re
responsible for so many lives, and we must make our decisions quickly and correctly. That??™s why controllers work as a team in the tower, keeping extra eyes out for potential problems even as we make individual decisions on the movement of aircraft on the ground and in the air.???(1)
They also talk about how being up in the tower can be different from being down in the radar room because up in the tower you can see out at the runway and its bright, in the radar room its dark and all you see is little blips on the radar scope. This can make the job even more stressful. Another topic they touch on is the equipment used by Air Traffic Controllers, for instance one of the pieces of equipment use is a computer that gathers weather information; they also use equipment that can tell the wind speed, locate and track planes, and that can tell the altitude and speed of planes. Air Traffic Controllers make is safe to fly stated here ???Aviation in this country is extremely safe. In any 24-hour period, over 100,000 IFR [instrument flight rules] aircraft take to the skies, and the mistakes pilots and air traffic controllers make are negligible.???(1) I though this article was very helpful and educational.
In the end both of these articles were extremely helpful and showed me a lot about what it??™s like to be an Air Traffic Controller. The first article was very fact oriented and had a lot of information; the second article was more as if a person was talking to you about their job and was more about their feelings and work environment. These articles were both helpful but The Bureau of Labor Statistics had more information. These articles were just from two different viewpoints in the end.

History of the English Language

What it means to apart of the world??™s bravest.
By Allie Rapp???I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand. It??™s when you know youre licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what. You rarely win, but sometimes you do.”
-Atticus Finch
To Kill a MockingbirdEditor??™s note
Courage, bravery when said aloud are words that sound dignified. They carry extra meanings. To be called courageous is an honor. To be called brave is a privilege it is something to achieve and to strive for. When given the opportunity to choose a word to study over these past few weeks, I jumped at the words courage and bravery. To me, these words mean so much more than myself. Being able to dive deep into the history and the meaning of the word was something I could boast about, something to be proud of. They??™re things I look for in a person. I look up to people who exemplify courage and bravery. It only made perfect sense to choose these two words to pick apart and truly understand on more than just a basic level.???You gain strength, courage, and confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. You are able to say to yourself, I lived through this horror. I can take the next thing that comes along.???
Eleanor Roosevelt
???Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen.???
Winston Churchill.
???I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.???
Nelson Mandela
???He is a man of courage who does not run away, but remains at his post and fights against the enemy.???
???What would life be if we had no courage to attempt anything???
Vincent Van Gogh
???Courage means accepting pain, fear or difficulty and living with it. Pushing through that hardship to thrive and grow. To do what is right in the face of adversity.???
Lauren Rapp
Three respected sources agree closely on the definition of courage. Merriam- Webster??™s Dictionary describes courage as ???mental or moral strength to? venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear, or difficulty??? The American Cambridge Online Dictionary gives a similar meaning, ???the ability to control fear and to be willing to deal with something that is dangerous, difficult, or unpleasant??? While Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia, defines courage as ???the ability to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation.??? However, the current dictionary definitions of courage are inadequate because they only include references to one type of courage. Courage is a double meaning in of itself. There is physical courage, actively doing something difficult, and moral courage, examples not just found in the soldiers who serve three tours in Iraq or in the policemen who risk their lives for the greater good, Courage is a state of mind that enables a person to overcome fear, pain, danger, or difficulty. Even though they differ, both aspects of courage involve stepping out of the comfort zone and taking risks.
During a study conducted on April 21, 2013, when asked who the most courageous person they knew was, 72% of those mentioned were family members of the participant. Of those responses, 62% were parents, and more specifically 50% were their mothers. The way these individuals carry themselves during times of struggle was a common theme to their justifications.
???If we take the generally accepted definition of bravery as a quality which knows no fear, I have never seen a brave man. All men are frightened. The more intelligent they are, the more they are frightened.???
George S. Patton According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word courage was first used in 1300 by Archelaus written as corage, meaning the heart as the feeling, thought, etc,; spirit, mind, disposition, , nature. It comes from Old French and Latin. The root, cor, meaning heart, helps to explain the definition given. The first time modern spelling appeared was in 1500. Bravery
As stated in the Oxford English Dictionary, bravery first comes from 1540??™s French spelled as braverie, meaning the action of braving and the Italian cognate braveria, coming from the Italian word bravare. The modern spelling came soon after in 1548. It is defined as ???the action of braving or acting the bravo; daring, defiance, boasting, swaggering; bravado, an act of bravado, in defiance, in display of courage or daring, as a brag.
Merriam-Webster defines brave as having or showing courage. The Cambridge Online Dictionary offers a definition of a similar meaning. They define bravery as showing no fear of dangerous or difficult things.
In the previous referenced study conducted on April 21, 2013, participants were Armed service men patrol at dusk.
asked who the most brave person they knew was. 54% mentioned someone with previous, or current, military service or background. If one were to only use the dictionary definitions of bravery, those who serve in our nation??™s military would absolutely be considered brave and courageous. The United States Navy??™s Sailor??™s Creed is an example of their dedication to with hold the ideals of courage. It states,
???I am a United States Sailor.
I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States of America and I will obey the orders of those appointed over me.
I represent the fighting spirit of the Navy and those who have gone before me to defend freedom and democracy around the world.
I proudly serve my countrys Navy combat team with Honor, Courage and Commitment.
I am committed to excellence and the fair treatment of all???.???
A United States Marines Corps ad campaign, employing courage to inspire new recruits.Being Brave..
Brave are the soldiers
who leave their homelands
knowing that they may
die by their enemy??™s hands.Brave are the firemen
who enter a burning home
to rescue someone
who might be dying alone.Brave are the children
who stand up to a bully
to defend a friend
against words of an enemy.Brave is the parent
who is cruel to be kind
to their young child
so that they grow up
disciplined and unwild.Brave are the righteous
who uphold the truth
and defend her
against all lies and untruth.Brave is doing
what is always right
even though
it may be unpopular.Brave is doing
the things that
scare and frighten us
but know we must do.Brave is not
being a slave to fear.
And to overcome any fear
rather than be
overcome by it,
so that we can do
what we must do.- Ritchie Fan
Bravery vs Courage
Bravery is the ability to confront pain, danger or difficulty without feeling the fear. It is strength in a person that seems bigger than the situation, whether they more powerful or not than what they??™re up against. Courage is the ability to take an immense difficulty, pain, or danger even though they??™re afraid. It is a state of mind that in the end makes the fear and struggle worth it. Unlike bravery, a person moved by courage may feel helpless in the face of danger, pain or difficulty. The whole meaning of courage is not the confidence of overcoming a task, but the decision to fight through it, even though victory is not certain. Editor??™s note.
Looking Forward: The Future of Courage and Bravery.
I believe in the good of people. I believe that the world wants to believe in the good of people too. It is this editor??™s prediction that words courage and bravery have solidified a place in our future as they are today. The world will keep striving to achieve the badge of honor that accompany these two words. These words will continue to be what they are today, a guide of how to live our lives.


Four Year Accredited College??”Arizona State University or University of WashingtonIntroduction
Two of my favorite colleges, that I have thought about attending, are Arizona State University and the University of Washington. Although, both of these are great accredited schools, they have some definite differences, especially depending upon whether you are an in state resident or out of state resident.
Arizona State University is located in the state of Arizona and has four separate campus locations: Tempe campus, West campus, Polytechnic campus, and Downtown Phoenix campus. All four of these locations are located in the state of Arizona. Arizona State University views itself as ???One University in Many Places???. The Tempe campus is known for the research and graduate education. It also offers undergraduate education, which prepares students for graduation and then employment and or helps them move on to a professional school. The West campus is known for its liberal arts education. Although, the professional programs that are offered at this campus are very connected to the community. The Polytechnic is known for its professional and technological programs that are geared to help students meet business and social needs, while also preparing the student for the workforce. The Downtown Phoenix campus is known for its urban and public connection programs.
The University of Washington is located in the state of Washington and has three campus locations: Seattle, Tacoma, and Bothell. The Seattle location is the biggest campus and is the main campus, while the other two locations are satellite campuses. The Tacoma and Bothell locations have the same education you would receive at the main campus in Seattle but the class sizes are smaller. The Milgard School of Business is offered at all three locations, which is considered a world-class education that can be used in the work force and is looked at as a asset. It also offers research programs and large research labs. Everything offered to the students, that is related to their studies, at each location, is state of the art.

Arizona State University is known as one of the largest research colleges in the United States and has been accredited since 1931by the North Central Association (NCA) Commission on Institutions of Higher Education. They have also been accredited by the Council on Social Work Education and awarded the BSW since 1974 and MSW degrees since 1965. They are know as one of five ???Up and Coming??? colleges in the United States for it??™s improvements to its studies and campus??™s and is named one of the top 20 ???cool schools???.
University of Washington was founded in 1861 and is the oldest college on the West Coast. In 2010 it was listed as one of 16 best colleges in the world. It is said to be the largest college in the Northwestern United and have so many accredited programs, I could not list them because of how many.
Arizona State University has at least 250 majors for undergraduate programs not including the master and doctoral programs. The programs are spread over the four campuses. Arizona State is known for the Liberal Arts and Science programs, which is made up of two dozen different programs and departments.
University of Washington also has 250 majors for the undergraduate programs and they offer 70 different language classes. They also have over 7,000 research programs and they have over 4,000 teachers on staff trained to help student with their studies and help students plan for the future.Conclusion
In determining on where to go to school, an individual, should consider each location, the programs that are offered, the reputation of the school and how it relates to that individuals plan and future goals.