oicism? (Greek? ????) was a school of? Hellenistic philosophy? founded in? Athens? by? Zeno of Citium? in the early? 3rd century BC. The Stoics considered destructive emotions to be the result of errors in judgment, and that a? sage, or person of “moral and intellectual perfection,” would not suffer such emotions.? Stoics were concerned with the active relationship between cosmic? determinism? and human? freedom, and the belief that it is? virtuous? to maintain a? will? (called? prohairesis) that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life, and they thought that the best indication of an individuals philosophy was not what a person said but how he behaved.? Later Stoics, such as? Seneca? and? Epictetus, emphasized that because “virtue is sufficient for happiness,” a sage was immune to misfortune. This belief is similar to the meaning of the phrase stoic calm, though the phrase does not include the “radical ethical” Stoic views that only a? sage? can be considered truly free, and that all moral corruptions are equally vicious.
Stoic doctrine was a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout? Greece? and the? Roman Empire, from its founding until the closing of all philosophy schools in 529? AD by order of the Emperor? Justinian I, who perceived their? pagan? character to be at odds with the Christian faith.name.? Unlike the other schools of philosophy, such as the? Epicureans, Zeno chose to teach his philosophy in a public space, which was a? colonnade? overlooking the central gathering place of Athens, the? Agora.Zenos ideas developed from those of the? Cynics, whose founding father,? Antisthenes, had been a disciple of? Socrates. Zenos most influential follower was? Chrysippus, who was responsible for the moulding of what is now call Stoicism. Later Roman Stoics focused on promoting a life in harmony within the universe, over which one has no direct control.Scholars usually divide the history of Stoicism into three phases: ? Early Stoa, from the founding of the school by Zeno to? Antipater.
? Middle Stoa, including? Panaetius? and? Posidonius.
? Late Stoa, including? Musonius Rufus,? Seneca,? Epictetus, and? Marcus Aurelius.
Unfortunately, as? A. A. Long? states, no complete work by any Stoic philosopher survives from the first two phases of Stoicism. Only Roman texts from the Late Stoa survive.Stoic logicDiodorus Cronus, who was one of Zenos teachers, is considered the philosopher who first introduced and developed an approach and system of logic now known as? propositional logic. This is an approach to logic based on statements, making it very different from Aristotles? term logic. Later,? Chrysippus? developed this approach to logic into the system that was Stoic logic. New interest in Stoic logic came in the 20th? century, when important developments in logic were based on propositional logic. Susanne Bobzien wrote, “The many close similarities between Chrysippus philosophical logic and that ofGottlob Frege? are especially striking.”? Bobzien also notes that “Chrysippus wrote over 300 books on logic, on virtually any topic logic today concerns itself with, including? speech act theory,? sentence analysis,? singular? and? plural expressions, types of? predicates,? indexicals,? existential propositions,? sentential connectives,? negations,? disjunctions,? conditionals,? logical consequence,? valid argument? forms,? theory of deduction,? propositional logic,? modal logic,? tense logic,? epistemic logic,? logic of suppositions,? logic of imperatives, ambiguity and logicalparadoxes.”EpistemologyThe Stoics believed in the? certainty? that? knowledge? can be attained through the use of? reason.? Truth? can be distinguished from? fallacy; even if, in practice, only an approximation can be made. According to the Stoics, the? senses? are constantly receiving sensations: pulsations which pass from objects through the senses to the? mind, where they leave behind an impression (phantasia). The mind has the ability to judge (sunkatathesis)??”approve or reject??”an impression, enabling it to distinguish a true representation of? reality? from one which is false. Some impressions can be assented to immediately, but others can only achieve varying degrees of hesitant approval which can be labeled? belief? or opinion (doxa). It is only through the use of reason that we can achieve clear comprehension and conviction (katalepsis).? Certain? and true knowledge (episteme), achievable by the Stoic sage, can be attained only by verifying the conviction with the expertise of ones peers and the collective judgment of humankind.Make for yourself a definition or description of the thing which is presented to you, so as to see distinctly what kind of a thing it is in its substance, in its nudity, in its complete entirety, and tell yourself its proper name, and the names of the things of which it has been compounded, and into which it will be resolved. For nothing is so productive of elevation of mind as to be able to examine methodically and truly every object which is presented to you in life, and always to look at things so as to see at the same time what kind of universe this is, and what kind of use everything performs in it, and what value everything has with reference to the whole.Stoic physics and cosmologyMain article:? Stoic physics
According to the Stoics, the? universe? is a material, reasoning substance, known as? God? or? Nature, which the Stoics divided into two classes, the active and the passive. The passive substance is? matter, which “lies sluggish, a substance ready for any use, but sure to remain unemployed if no one sets it in motion.”? The active substance, which can be called? Fate, or Universal Reason (Logos), is an intelligent? aether? or primordial fire, which acts on the passive matter:The universe itself is god and the universal outpouring of its soul; it is this same worlds guiding principle, operating in mind and reason, together with the common nature of things and the totality which embraces all existence; then the foreordained might and necessity of the future; then fire and the principle of aether; then those elements whose natural state is one of flux and transition, such as water, earth, and air; then the sun, the moon, the stars; and the universal existence in which all things are contained.Everything is subject to the laws of Fate, for the Universe acts only according to its own nature, and the nature of the passive matter which it governs. The? souls? of? people? and? animalsare emanations from this primordial fire, and are, likewise, subject to Fate:Constantly regard the universe as one living being, having one substance and one soul; and observe how all things have reference to one perception, the perception of this one living being; and how all things act with one movement; and how all things are the cooperating causes of all things that exist; observe too the continuous spinning of the thread and the structure of the web.Individual souls are perishable by nature, and can be “transmuted and diffused, assuming a fiery nature by being received into the Seminal Reason (logos spermatikos) of the Universe.”? Since right Reason is the foundation of both humanity and the universe, it follows that the goal of life is to live according to? Reason, that is, to live a life according to? Nature.Stoic ethics and virtuesThe ancient Stoics are often misunderstood because the terms they used pertained to different concepts in the past than they do today. The word stoic has come to mean unemotional or indifferent to pain, because Stoic ethics taught freedom from passion by following reason. The Stoics did not seek to extinguish emotions; rather, they sought to transform them by a resolute askesis which enables a person to develop clear judgment and inner calm.? Logic, reflection, and concentration were the methods of such self-discipline.Borrowing from the? Cynics, the foundation of Stoic ethics is that good lies in the state of the? soul? itself; in wisdom and self-control. Stoic ethics stressed the rule: “Follow where reason leads.” One must therefore strive to be free of the? passions, bearing in mind that the ancient meaning of passion was “anguish” or “suffering”,? that is, “passively” reacting to external events??”somewhat different from the modern use of the word. A distinction was made between? pathos? (plural? pathe) which is normally translated as “passion”,? propathos? or instinctive reaction (e.g. turning pale and trembling when confronted by physical danger) and? eupathos, which is the mark of the Stoic sage (sophos). The? eupatheia? are feelings resulting from correct judgment in the same way as the passions result from incorrect judgment.The idea was to be free of? suffering? through? apatheia? (Greek:? ???????) or? peace of mind? (literally,without passion),? where peace of mind was understood in the ancient sense??”beingobjective? or having “clear judgment” and the maintenance of? equanimity? in the face of lifes highs and lows.For the Stoics, reason meant not only using logic, but also understanding the processes of nature??”the? logos, or universal reason, inherent in all things. Living according to reason and virtue, they held, is to live in harmony with the divine order of the universe, in recognition of the common reason and essential value of all people. The four cardinal virtues of the Stoic philosophy are? wisdom? (Sophia),? courage? (Andreia),? justice? (Dikaiosyne), and? temperance? (Sophrosyne), a classification derived from the teachings of? Plato.Following? Socrates, the Stoics held that unhappiness and? evil? are the results of human ignorance of the reason in nature. If someone is unkind, it is because they are unaware of their own universal reason which would lead to the conclusion of kindness. The solution to evil and unhappiness then, is the practice of Stoic philosophy??”to examine ones own judgments and behavior and determine where they have diverged from the universal reason of nature.The Stoics accepted that? suicide? was permissible for the wise person in circumstances that might prevent them from living a virtuous life.? Plutarch? held that accepting life under tyranny would have compromised? Catos self-consistency (constantia) as a Stoic and impaired his freedom to make the honourable moral choices.? Suicide could be justified if one fell victim to severe pain or disease,? but otherwise suicide would usually be seen as a rejection of ones social duty.The doctrine of “things indifferent”In philosophical terms, things that are indifferent are outside the application of? moral law, that is without tendency to either promote or obstruct moral ends. Actions neither required nor forbidden by the moral law, or which do not affect? morality, are called morally indifferent. The doctrine of things indifferent (????????,? adiaphora) arose in the Stoic school as a? corollary? of its diametric opposition of virtue and vice (?????????? kathekon? and ??????????? hamartemata, respectively “convenient actions,” or actions in accordance with nature, and mistakes). As a result of this? dichotomy, a large class of objects were left unassigned and thus regarded as indifferent.Eventually three sub-classes of “things indifferent” developed: things to be preferred because they assisted life according to nature; things to be avoided because they hindered it; and things indifferent in the narrower sense.The principle of? adiaphora? was also common to the Cynics and? Sceptics. The conception of things indifferent is, according to? Kant, extra-moral. The doctrine of things indifferent was revived during the? Renaissance? by? Philip Melanchthon.Spiritual exercise[pic]
Marcus Aurelius, the Stoic emperor
Philosophy for a Stoic is not just a set of beliefs or ethical claims, it is a way of life involving constant practice and training (or? askesis, seeasceticism). Stoic philosophical and spiritual practices included logic, Socratic dialogue and self-dialogue, contemplation of death, training attention to remain in the present moment (similar to some forms of? Eastern? meditation), daily reflection on everyday problems and possible solutions,? hypomnemata, and so on. Philosophy for a Stoic is an active process of constant practice and self-reminder.In his? Meditations, Marcus Aurelius defines several such practices. For example, in Book II, part 1:Say to yourself in the early morning: I shall meet today ungrateful, violent, treacherous, envious, uncharitable men. All of these things have come upon them through ignorance of real good and ill… I can neither be harmed by any of them, for no man will involve me in wrong, nor can I be angry with my kinsman or hate him; for we have come into the world to work together…The practices of spiritual exercises have been described as influencing those of? reflective practice? by Seamus Mac Suibhne .? Parallels between Stoic spiritual exercises and modern? cognitive-behavioural therapy? have been detailed at length in Robertsons? The Philosophy of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy.Social philosophyA distinctive feature of Stoicism is its? cosmopolitanism: All people are manifestations of the one universal spirit and should, according to the Stoics, live in brotherly love and readily help one another. In the? Discourses,? Epictetus? comments on mans relationship with the world: “Each human being is primarily a citizen of his own commonwealth; but he is also a member of the great city of gods and men, where of the city political is only a copy.”? This sentiment echoes that of? Socrates, who said “I am not an? Athenian? or a? Corinthian, but a citizen of the world.”They held that external differences such as rank and wealth are of no importance in social relationships. Thus, before the rise of? Christianity, Stoics advocated the brotherhood of humanity and the natural equality of all human beings. Stoicism became the most influential school of the Greco??“Roman world, and produced a number of remarkable writers and personalities, such as? Cato the Younger? and Epictetus.In particular, they were noted for their urging of? clemency? toward? slaves. Seneca exhorted, “Kindly remember that he whom you call your slave sprang from the same stock, is smiled upon by the same skies, and on equal terms with yourself breathes, lives, and dies.”Stoicism and ChristianitySee also:? Neostoicism
Stoicism was later regarded by the? Fathers of the Church? as a pagan philosophy,? nonetheless, some of the central philosophical concepts of Stoicism were employed by the early Christian writers. Examples include the terms “logos”, “virtue”, “Spirit”, and “conscience”.? But the parallels go well beyond the sharing (or borrowing) of terminology. Both Stoicism and Christianity assert an inner freedom in the face of the external world, a belief in human kinship with Nature (or God), and a sense of the innate depravity??”or “persistent evil”??”of humankind.? Both encourage? askesis? with respect to the passions and inferior emotions (viz. lust, envy and anger) so that the higher possibilities of ones humanity can be awakened and developed.The major difference between the two philosophies is Stoicisms? pantheism? where God is never fully transcendent but always? immanent. God as the world-creating entity is personalised in Christian thought, but Stoicism equates God with the totality of the universe. Also, Stoicism, unlike Christianity, posits no beginning or end to the universe, and no continued individual existence beyond death.? Even so, Stoic writings such as the? Meditations? of? Marcus Aurelius? have been highly regarded throughout the centuries.? St. Ambrose of Milan? was known for applying Stoic philosophy to his theology.HELLENISTIC PERIODe? Hellenistic period? describes the era which followed the conquests of? Alexander the Great. During this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenith in Europe and Asia. It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decline or decadence,? between the brilliance of the Greek? Classical Era? and the emergence of the? Roman Empire. Usually taken to begin with the death of Alexander in 323 BC, the Hellenistic period may either be seen to end with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by? Rome? in 146 BC; or the final defeat of the last remaining successor-state to Alexanders empire, thePtolemaic kingdom? of Egypt in 31/30 BC.? The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of colonists which established Greek cities and kingdoms in? Asia? and? Africa.he Greek kingdom of Bactria (or Greco-Bactrian kingdom) began as an offshoot of the Seleucid empire. The sheer size of the eastern Seleucid dTomains must mean that the? satraps? governing the provinces had significant freedom from central control. In around 250 BC, the governor of Bactria, Sogdiana and Margiana, one Diodotus, took this process to its logical extreme and declared himself king. At around the same time, the re-emergence of a native Persian dynasty under the? Parthian? king? Arsaceseffectively cut the nascent Greco-Bactrian kingdom off from the rest of the Seleucid empire. This probably allowed it to maintain its independence in the medium term, but in the long-term may have contributed to its decline and fall; it could no longer receive manpower or aid from other Hellenistic regions at sufficient levels.Diodotus II, son of Diodotus, was overthrown in about 230 BC by? Euthydemus, possibly the satrap of Sogdiana, who then started his own dynasty. In approx 210 BC, the Greco-Bactrian kingdom was invaded by a resurgent Seleucid empire under? Antiochus III. Whilst victorious in the field, it seems Antiochus came to realise that there were advantages in the status quo (perhaps sensing that Bactria could not be governed from Syria), and married one of his daughters to Euthydemuss son, thus legitimising Greco-Bactria. Soon afterwards the Greco-Bactrian kingdom seems to have expanded, possibly taking advantage of the defeat of the Parthian king? Arsaces II? by Antiochus.Demetrius, son and successor of Euthydemus, invaded north-western India in 180 BC, after the destruction of the Mauryan empire there; the Mauryans were probably allies of the Bactrians (and Seleucids). The exact justification for the invasion remains unclear, but by about 175 BC, the Greeks ruled over parts of north-western India.This period also marks the beginning of the obfuscation of Greco-Bactrian history. Demetrius possibly died about 180 BC; numismatic evidence suggest the existence of several other kings shortly thereafter. It is probable that at this point that the Greco-Bactrian kingdom split into several semi-independent regions for some years;? Euthydemus II? (son of Demetrius) seems to have ruled in Bactria, with? Agathocles,? Antimachus I? and? Pantaleon? ruling in India. In around 171 BC the usurper? Eucratides I? swept to power in Bactria, removing whichever king(s) were actually ruling at that point. Similarly, in India, the general? Apollodotus I? seems to have assumed more-or-less complete power by around 170 BC, thereby marking the true start of the? Indo-Greek kingdom? (see below).Eucratides may have been a member of the Seleucid royal family, who set out to (re)claim the Bactrian lands. Eucratides certainly had a vast and prestigious coinage, suggesting he was a ruler of considerable importance. He appears to have re-invigorated the Bactrian kingdom, although territory was lost to Parthia in the west. He fought with the Indo-Greeks, and appears to have occupied India up to the river? Indus? for a while. However, his murder in 145 BC triggered a civil war which fatally weakened the kingdom as his sons? Eucratides II? and? Heliocles Ifought each other. Heliocles was the last Greek to clearly rule Bactria, his power collapsing in the face of tribal invasions of Bactria, by about 130 BC. However, Greek urban civilisation seems to have continued in Bactria after the fall of the kingdom, having a hellenising effect on the tribes which had displaced Greek-rule.The Indo-Greek KingdomsMain article:? Indo-Greeks[pic]
Silver? drachma? of the? Indo-Greek? king? Menander I? (155-130 BC).
Obv:? Greek? legend, ???????? ??????? ????????? “[coin] of Saviour King Menander”.
Rev:? Kharosthi? legend: MAHARAJA TRATASA MENADRASA “Saviour King Menander”.? Athena? advancing right, with thunderbolt and shield.? Taxila? mint mark.
The separation of the Indo-Greek kingdom from the Greco-Bactrian kingdom resulted in an even more isolated position from the west, and thus the details of the Indo-Greek kingdom are even more obscure than for Bactria. Many supposed kings in India are known only because of coins bearing their name. The numismatic evidence together with archaeological finds and the scant historical records suggest that the fusion of eastern and western cultures reached its peak in the Indo-Greek kingdom.As mentioned, Apollodotus made himself king of India in around 170 BC. The exact fate of Apollodotus is unknown, but he seems to have extended the conquests east into? Gandhara? and western? Punjab. In about 155 (or 165) BC he seems to have been succeeded by the most successful of the Indo-Greek kings,? Menander I. Menander converted to Buddhism, and seems to have been a great patron of the religion; he is remembered in some Buddhist texts as Milinda. He also expanded the kingdom further east into Punjab, though these conquests were rather ephemeral.After the death of Menander (c. 130 BC), the Kingdom appears to have fragmented, with several kings attested contemporaneously in different regions. This inevitably weakened the Greek position, and territory seems to have been lost progressively. Around 70 BC, the western regions of? Arachosia? and? Paropamisadae? were lost to tribal invasions, presumably by those tribes responsible for the end of the Bactrian kingdom. The resulting? Indo-Scythian? kingdom seems to have gradually pushed the remaining Indo-Greek kingdom towards the east. The Indo-Greek kingdom appears to have lingered on in western Punjab until about 10 AD when finally ended by the Indo-Scythians.The Kingdom of PontusMain article:? Kingdom of Pontus
The Kingdom of Pontus was a Hellenistic Kingdom on the southern coast of the Black Sea. It was founded by Mithridates I in 291 BC and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic in 63 BC. Despite being ruled by a dynasty which was a descendant of the Persian Achaemenid Empire it became hellenized due to the influence of the Greek cities on the Black Sea and its neighboring kingdoms. The kingdom grew to its largest extent under Mithridates VI the great, who conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, Lesser Armenia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia. After a long struggle with Rome in the Mithridatic wars, Pontus was defeated, part of it was incorporated into the Roman Republic as the province Bithynia and Pontus and the eastern half survived as a client Kingdom.Rise of RomeWidespread Roman interference in the Greek World was probably inevitable given the general manner of the ascendency of the? Roman Republic. This Roman-Greek interaction began as a consequence of the Greek city-states located along the coast of southern Italy. Rome had come to dominate the Italian peninsula, and desired the submission of the Greek cities to its rule. Although they initially resisted, allying themselves with? Pyrrhus of Epirus, and defeating the Romans at several battles, the Greek cities were unable to maintain this position and were absorbed by the Roman republic. Shortly afterwards, Rome became involved in Sicily, fighting against the? Carthaginans? in the? First Punic War. The end result was the complete conquest of Sicily, including its previously powerful Greek cities, by the Romans.The independent cities of? Magna Graecia? did not form part of the Hellenistic domains and had, by this time, been eclipsed in power by the Hellenistic kingdoms of the east. They also remained independent at a time when the Mediterranean was increasingly dominated by great powers. This, and their proximity to Rome, had made them easy and obvious targets. Conversely, the major Hellenistic realms were not in the immediate Roman sphere of influence, and were powerful enough to deter Roman aggression. The events which, in retrospect, marked the beginning of the end for the Hellenistic kingdoms could have been avoided; even if it seems likely that a collision between them and Rome would have ultimately occurred.Roman entanglement in the Balkans began, as so often, with trade. Illyrian piratical raids on Roman merchants twice led to a Roman task force invading Illyria (the? First? and,? Second Illyrian Wars). Tension between Macedon and Rome increased when the young king of Macedon,? Philip V? harboured one of the chief pirates,? Demetrius of Pharos? ? (a former client of Rome). As a result, in an attempt to reduce Roman influence in the Balkans, Philip allied himself with Carthage after? Hannibal? had dealt the Romans a massive defeat at the? Battle of Cannae? (216 BC) during the? Second Punic War. Forcing the Romans to fight on another front when they were at a nadir of manpower gained Philip the lasting enmity of the Romans; the only real result from the somewhat insubstantial? First Macedonian War? (215??“202 BC).Once the? Second Punic War? had been resolved, and the Romans had begun to regather their strength, they looked to re-assert their influence in the Balkans, and to curb the expansion of Philip. A pretext for war was provided by Philips refusal to end his? war? with? Attalid? Pergamum, and? Rhodes, both Roman allies.? The Romans, also allied with the? Aetolian League? of Greek city-states (which resented Philips power), thus declared war on Macedon in 200 BC, starting the? Second Macedonian War. This ended with a decisive Roman victory at the? Battle of Cynoscephalae? (197 BC). Like most Roman peace treaties of the period, the resultant Peace of Flaminius was designed to utterly crush the power of the defeated party; a massive indemnity was levied, Philips fleet was surrendered to Rome, and Macedon was effectively returned to its ancient boundaries, losing influence over the city-states of southern Greece, and land in Thrace and Asia Minor. The result was the end of Macedon as a major power in the Mediterranean.As a result of the confusion in Greece at the end of the Second Macedonian War, the Seleucid Empire also became entangled with the Romans. The Seleucid? Antiochus III? had allied with Philip V of Macedon in 203 BC, agreeing that they should jointly conquer the lands of the boy-king of Egypt,? Ptolemy V. After defeating Ptolemy in the? Fifth Syrian War, Antiochus concentrated on occupying the Ptolemaic possessions in Asia Minor. However, this brought Antiochus into conflict with Rhodes and Pergamum, two important Roman allies, and began a cold-war between Rome and Antiochus (not helped by the presence of Hannibal at the Seleucid court).? Meanwhile, in mainland Greece, the? Aetolian League, which had sided with Rome against Macedon, now grew to resent the Roman presence in Greece. This presented Antiochus III with a pretext to invade Greece and liberate it from Roman influence, thus starting the? Roman-Syrian War? (192??“188 BC). Another decisive Roman victory at the? Battle of Magnesia? (190 BC) saw the defeat of Antiochus. Another crippling treaty followed, with Seleucid possessions in Asia Minor removed and given to Rhodes and Pergamum, the size of the Seleucid navy reduced, and a massive war indemnity invoked.Thus, in less than twenty years, Rome had destroyed the power of one of the successor states, crippled another, and firmly entrenched its influence over Greece. This was primarily a result of the over-ambition of the Macedonian kings, and their unintended provocation of Rome; though Rome was quick to exploit the situation. In another twenty years, the Macedonian kingdom was no more. Seeking to re-assert Macedonian power and Greek independence, Philip Vs son? Perseus? incurred the wrath of the Romans, resulting in the? Third Macedonian War? (171-168 BC). Victorious, the Romans abolished the Macedonian kingdom, replacing it with four puppet republics; these lasted a further twenty years before Macedon was formally annexed as a Roman province (146 BC).The Attalid dynasty of Pergamum lasted little longer; a Roman ally until the end, its final King? Attalus III? died in 133 BC without an heir, and taking the alliance to its natural conclusion, willed Pergamum to the Roman Republic.Contrarily, having so firmly intricated themselves into Greek affairs, the Romans now completely ignored the rapidly disintegrating Seleucid empire (perhaps because it posed no threat); and left the Ptolemaic kingdom to decline quietly, whilst acting as a protector of sorts, in as much as to stop other powers taking Egypt over (including the famous line-in-the-sandincident? when the Seleucid? Antiochus IV Epiphanes? tried to invade Egypt).? Eventually, instability in the near east resulting from the power vacuum left by the collapse of the Seleucid empire caused the Roman? proconsul? Pompey the Great? to abolish the Seleucid rump state, absorbing much of Syria into the Roman republic.? Famously, the end of Ptolemaic Egypt came as the final act in the republican civil war between the Roman triumvirs? Mark Anthony? and? Augustus Caesar. After the defeat of Anthony and his lover, the last Ptolemaic monarch,Cleopatra VII? at the? Battle of Actium, Augustus invaded Egypt and took it as his own personal fiefdom.? He thereby completed both the destruction of the Hellenistic kingdoms and the Roman republic, and ended (in hindsight) the Hell