History of the Confederacy

History of the Confederacy: An Analysis

According to the article written by Stephaine McCurry, the Confederacy was an anti democratic society in which all men are not created equal. This was done to justify the continued use of slaves, and since not all men would be created equal according to this government, the white man is worth much more than a black man. According to Alexander Stephens the confederacy was created on this idea ???Foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery is his natural condition. This, our new government, is the first in the history of the world based upon this great truth.” There was even a clause included that made it impossible for future amendments to overturn slavery. Obviously, the South was financially benefitting from the use of slaves since their major export was cotton; they had free work in the form of slaves to do the work the white man did not want to do. In order for their new government to work, they must secede from the other states.
One of the major problems the Confederacy was by their own people. The slaves fought against a government that turned them into property and refused them any rights. However, this government also ignored an entire white population as well ??“ women. Women were not happy being ignored when they too stood by their husbands, but according to the government they were no better than slaves. Another problem was that the institution of slavery limited the power of the federal government and weakened their side during a war. They were scrambling to protect their women and children; this left very few men there to fight. As Jefferson Davis once said, ???Slavery was a form of government for those not fit to govern themselves: Slavery was the slaves state, and masters the authority to which they owed allegiance.??? This meant that the government did not have direct control over the slaves. Only through their masters did the government have any control. The slaves were not considered citizens and were not governed to the same extent because of the limited contact the government had with the slaves without their masters.
When the men and sons left for the war leaving the women to tend to the farming there were many problems. There began a food crisis of ???starvation proportions???. Women could not perform the duties that the men and sons could. It turned into a political issue when the women expected the promises made by the government to help when they took their men and sons.?  In the spring of 1863 the ???soldier wives??? started a number of food riots. These riots were anywhere from a dozen to 300 women. The women would carry knives, pistols, hatchets, etc. and attack stores, government warehouses, army convoys, railroad depots, salt works, and granaries. These riots forced revisions of conscription and tax policies. Also, prompted a massive welfare program that helped women and children with food and supplies whilst their husbands and sons were off to war. By insisting the government do what they promised, these poor white women helped in the making of history.
If the South had succeeded and been able to secede or had won the war, black men and women would have been enslaved for decades after. Their government included the clause that seemed to make it virtually impossible to change the slave laws later. It seemed as though they knew they were doing something wrong and that even future governments would try to change. The southern states would use slaves in any way they possibly could to ensure their financial success. The states would have ended up being the more rich of the two because of the built-in free labor. That being said, they would have remained tense and constantly at the brink of war with the south. There would have been increased activists in the north and the south as the two competing sides continually fought with one another over the different sides.


Essay: Compare and contrast the two texts ??“ The Tell-Tale Heart and La Belle Dame Sans Merci???The Tell-Tale Heart??™ written by Edgar Allan Poe and ???La Belle Dame Sans Merci??™ written by John Keats are two significant texts published in the 19th century. Through the study of both texts, various similarities and contrasts are perceived by the responder ranging from the genre to the setting of each text and the analytical understanding of the characters, themes and storyline.There are various similarities perceived between the two texts. The Tell-Tale Heart and La Belle Dame Sans Merci mutually belong to the same genre as they both consist of gothic fiction. In ???The Tell-Tale Heart??™, it follows an anonymous narrator who contends his reason for murdering an old man with an ???evil eye??™. It is indicated in the text that the narrator ???loved the old man. He had never wronged me. He had never given me insult. For his gold I have no desire. I think it was his eye! Yes, it was this!??™ which prepared him to plot the murder which therefore indicates that the text correlates to be in the gothic genre as it consists of both love and horror. Similarly, ???La Belle Dame Sans Merci??™ belongs to the gothic genre as it comprises of a main character ???knight-at-arms??™ whose tale begins as glorious romance which is a characteristic of the gothic genre. When the poem is interpreted in different ways it can be seen to raise various themes common in the gothic genre as La Belle Dame continued to bewitch the knight. This is indicated in the text ???She look??™d at me as she did love, And made sweet moan??™. ???For sideways would she lean, and sing a faery??™s song??™ in which the knight ???nothing else saw all day long.??™ ???La Belle Dame Sans Merci??™ can be read as a metaphorical warning against the powers of human imagination which is another common gothic theme. Through the understanding of both the texts having the similarity of being considered in the gothic genre, it is revealed that the texts mutually comprise of magic. Magic is revealed in The ???Tell-Tale Heart??™ as it is the ???evil-eye??™ of the old man that indicates magic as the narrator states in the text that ???Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold; and so by degrees — very gradually.??™ Additionally, in ???La Belle Dame Sans Merci??™, La Belle Dame is ???a faery??™s child??™ who took the knight to her magical cave ???elfin grot??™ and she magically ???lulled??™ the knight asleep indicating this text is also comprises magic.???The Tell-Tale Heart??™ and ???La Belle Dame Sans Merci??™, on the other hand, also have various contrasts. One of these contrasts is the text type. The Tell-Tale Heart is a short story comprised of many paragraphs written entirely in first person as it is a monologue. The story is set in within an old house, especially in the room where the old man sleeps. The narrator of the story hates the old mans eye as he considers it to be ???evil??™ which made his mind up to ???take the life of the old man, and thus rid himself of the eye forever.??™ La Belle Dame Sans Merci, on the other hand is a poem comprised of twelve stanzas written in first and second person about a knight who recounts the events that have happened. The poem is first set outside on a barren landscape ???haggard??™ and ???woe-begone??™. The knight recounts how he met a beautiful lady ???whose eyes were wild??™. The knight then sets her on his horse and the lady who appears to be ???a faery??™s child??™ took the knight to her cave known as her ???elfin grot??™. The setting is therefore different to The Tell-Tale Heart it is set on a barren land and inside a cave rather than an old house in The Tell-Tale Heart. It is then also understood that in The Tell-Tale Heart, the protagonist dislikes the eye as he considers it to be ???evil??™, whereas the knight in the poem finds the lady??™s eyes beautiful as he states that ???her were wild??™.Overall the similarities, contrasts and the analytical understanding of the characters in each text the themes of love, hate and desire are engaged towards the responder. Although the two texts belong to the same genre of gothic fiction and were written during the same time of the 19th century, one is a short story while the other is a poem. The protagonist in ???The Tell-Tale Heart??™ expresses guilt and hate towards another character in the story whereas ???La Belle Dame Sans Merci??™ comprises a knight who expresses his love and desire towards another character but found himself lost and confused. The settings of each storyline are completely different as one is set in an old house whereas the other is in a cave but overall the texts mutually comprise of magic such as the ???evil eye??™ and the ???faery??™s child??™ who the knight recounts the lady??™s ???eyes were wild??™ with beauty. Therefore, through the comparison of The Tell-Tale Heart and La Belle Dame Sans Merci, similarities can be drawn out as well as the contrasts although they were written in the same century and mutually convey an analytical understanding.

History of the Alaska Steamship Company

History of the Alaska Steamship CompanyRegular monthly boat service from U.S. ports to Alaska began in 1867 following the purchase of Alaska from Russia. Occupation troops were dispatched and cargo and mail soon followed. By 1875 several ship lines were making the voyage up the Panhandle in spite of often inhospitable waters and a treacherous coastline. The first tourists began booking passage as reports of unparalleled scenery were increasingly publicized. On August 3, 1894, Charles Peabody, Capt. George Roberts, Capt. Melville Nichols, George Lent, Frank E. Burns and Walter Oakes formed the Alaska Steamship Company which would eventually enjoy a near monopoly of freight and passenger service to Alaska.. This group of six men began gathering $30,000 by selling 300 shares of stock, at $100 each. Charles Peabody was named president of the company.On Jan. 21, 1895, the Alaska Steamship Company was finalized. The first vessel purchased was the 140-foot steamer WILLAPA.
Sustaining the company??™s growth was the completion of a railroad into the interior, encouraging mining activity for precious metals that brought both fortune-seekers and tourists. By 1905, activity shifted from the Juneau/Skagway area to Valdez/Cordova, then eventually to Nome, where Alaska Steamship was ready to capitalize on the bonanza by switching its ships accordingly. At the end of 1897, Charles Peabody reorganized the Alaska Steamship Co. and his fleet expanded rapidly as the Klondike gold stampede mounted. In 1898 the stockholders formed the Puget Sound Navigation Co. as an inland water subsidiary. That new company was registered in Nevada where corporate laws were more lenient. The Puget Sound routes were a natural place for the company to recycle some of its smaller original vessels as they became obsolete for the strenuous Alaska runs. As the turn of the century was approaching, several events were causing tremendous increases in Southeast Alaskan marine travel: religious missions were being established, fish canneries were being built and gold had been discovered. The Inside Passage was a major route to overland staging areas for the gold fields.t the outbreak of the Second World War, Alaska Steamship had a fleet of 16 vessels operating out of Seattle to Skagway, Seward and Nome. During World War II, the federal government took control of most U.S. registered ships for the war effort, including the ships of the Alaska Steamship Company and the company became an agent for the War Administration, was assigned its own ships and was given sixty others to manage.It returned to peacetime operations under the ownership of Skinner and Eddy Corporation, Seattle, which purchased the Alaska Steamship in August 1944 for $4,290,000. During World War 2 five ships were lost.After the war, the Alaska shipping industry changed. Only two major companies, Alaska Steamship Company and Northland Transportation Company served Alaska, both owned by the Skinner and Eddy Corporation in Washington. Before the war, 42 ships served Alaska; in 1948 only seven. The change was due to the end of federal subsidies, rising labour costs, and new competition from truckers and air carriers. The Alaska Steamship Company started to use tugs and barges and container ships. Tugs and barges could travel faster and operated with smaller crews 5 to 7 workers as compared to 30 to 40 on freighters. Containers could be trucked, lifted on and off, and trucked away, allowing faster loading.The first passenger sailing out of Seattle was undertaken by ALASKA in January 1946. She was subsequently followed by the YUKON, ALEUTIAN, BARANOF and DENALI. Ports of call northbound were Ketchikan (two days), Juneau (three days) and Seward (five days), with occasional calls at Wrangell, Petersburg, Skagway, Sitka, Cordova, Valdez, Kodiak and Seldovia. Southbound, the steamers called at the same ports they stopped at heading north. All steamers had accommodation for over 200 passengers ranging from steerage to a deluxe cabin with private bath. It was during this period that the company decided to concentrate on tourism.The Inside Passage to Alaska was a hazardous journey and Alaska Steamship was no stranger to its perils. On 4 February 1946 at 4 am during a blinding snowstorm and strong north easterly winds the YUKON ran aground near Cape Fairfield. Heavy seas prevented the launching of boats until daylight, by which time rescue vessels arrived to take off the frightened passengers and crew. Some years later another calamity was the collision of BARANOF with the Greek steamer Triton on 26 July 1952 near Nanaimo with the loss of two of the crew of the latter.
Many factors contributed to Alaska Steamship??™s eventual termination of passenger service. Firstly, there were continued labour problems caused by longshoremen, seamen and stewards. Secondly, the arrival of an air service (partly subsidized by the Government) to Alaska took away potential passengers and freight bookings and thirdly was the end of charter privileges and subsidy payments.The Alaska Steamship Company was facing insurmountable financial difficulties that even a new fleet of steamers could not remedy. On 6 July 1954 therefore Mr. D.E. Skinner the president of Alaska Steamship Company announced that his firm was moving out of the passenger business. The BARANOF was immediately laid up, the ALASKA sailed until August, the DENALI made the company??™s last passenger sailing in September 1954, The ships were then sold off.The Alaska Steamship Company now concentrated on the carriage of cargo but declining revenues, rising operation costs forced the Company to shut down in January 1971.


The point of this essay is to compare two war poems but yet not forgetting that it was a terrible experience for the soldiers that fought. The two poems that I am going to be comparing are Dulce et Decorum est wrote by Wilfred Owen and Vitai Lampada wrote by Sir Henry Newbolt.
Firstly, we are going to compare are the subjects. The subject in Dulce et Decorum est is about the soldiers fighting for their country. They are also describing how they are attempting to escape the terrorising experience of the war. This is shown by ???In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning??? This quote makes me feel that their as a young man dying and nobody could help him. This makes the reader feel that the soldier that wrote this perhaps watched a young man very close to him die.
The subject of Vitai Lampada is almost that war was a game that will someday end and when it does those people who fought in the war will gain fame and get thanks for fighting. This is shown by ???Ten to make and the match to win??? and ???Play up! Play up! And Play the game!??? This quote makes the reader feel that war is just like a bed of roses when actually it was a disgusting time in the soldier??™s lives.
Secondly, we are going to discuss the theme of Dulce et decorum est. The moral message of this poem is not for the soldiers to gain fame but it shows how horrible it was for soldiers and their relatives losing their close ones, and that soldiers were forced into war by their commanders. This was shown by ???behind the wagon that we flung him in, and watched the white eyes withering in his face???. This quote makes me as the reader feel that these soldiers were forced into war until they were injured or dead.
However the moral message of Vitai Lampada is that war is a game and you will be praised to fight and die in war. Family of these men thought that it was an honour for their close ones dying whilst fighting in the war. This is yet again shown by ???The river of death has brimmed his banks, And England??™s far, and Honour a name.??? This quote makes the reader feel that there were thousands of innocent men dying and England are just sending them off to fight.
In addition, the third item we will be comparing will be the rhythm and rhyme. The rhythm in Dulce et Decorum est is slow almost like you can picture them walking through the mud but yet also has a little rhythm. The rhyming in this poem is alternating rhyming couplets e.g. sacks-backs, sludge-trudge. The rhythm in Vitai Lampada is bubbly almost happy and upbeat. The rhythming in this poem is alternating rhyming couplets e.g. Fame-game, win-in.
Next, we are going to compare the imagery. In Dulce et Decorum est the imagery is very really because he has used very emotive words to see and almost picture this poem in your head. The writer has used metaphor, personification, simile to make the poem sound more realistic.
The imagery in Vitai Lampada isn??™t so clear and emotive due to the mixed vocabulary and messages that it is giving the reader when they read it. The writer has used metaphor and similes to make the poem sound more genuine.
What is more we are going to compare the vocabulary in the two poems. The vocabulary in Dulce et Decorum est is very descriptive because they he has described how everything is happening and therefore have used alliteration he has also used very formal words e.g. Knock-Kneed. This makes the reader feel almost horrified with the amount of description Wilfred has used.
On the other hand, the vocabulary in Vitai Lampada is much less formal than Dulce et Decorum est. The vocabulary is quite distinctive because the writer doesn??™t have such a wide range of vocabulary. The writer has used alliteration e.g. falling-flung. This makes the reader feel that the poem was less overwhelming because the vocabulary was less powering.
And finally, the last thing we are going to compare the expression also known as the tone. The expression in Dulce et Decorum est is very dull because it is almost like you can almost hear them scream and shout whilst the war is happening around them. You can almost hear them trudging through the mud. This makes the reader feel that the writer has purposely done this to show that war was horrible for the soldiers and the close ones that have lost their relatives.
The tone of Vitai Lampada is not so dull because the writer has not used so emotive words and therefore the tone is much more lively, you can almost hear the match of football and the referee is dying when you hear this poem.
Personally I like Dulce et decorum est the best due to the reality of war, although it was heartbreaking for the relatives it still shows how bad the war was.

History of Rocks

Associate Level MaterialHistory of Rock WorksheetWrite a 500- to 750-word explanation regarding the role of plate tectonics in the origin of igneous rocks.|The role of plate tectonics in the origin of igneous rocks is very important. Igneous rocks are formed within three main areas; at|
|lithospheric plates that are pulled at the ridges of the mid-ocean areas, seduction zones are where the plates join together, and |
|where the continental crust has been pushed together. There are two ideas that are voiced when it comes to igneous rocks. The |
|first idea is that igneous rocks do evolve meaning they can change from one type of rock into another. The second idea is that |
|rocks are not distributed randomly throughout the Earth. Certain types of rocks are usually found in a specific area for a |
|particular reason, yet all of these are combined into the process of plate tectonics. The word igneous stems from the Latin word |
|???fire???. Igneous rocks start out as a liquid hot material. The material could have been from lava that had been erupted at the |
|Earth??™s surface, un-erupted lava or magma at shallow depths, or even plutons (magma that is in a deep body). People usually think |
|of magma or lava as a liquid comparable to liquid metal. However, geologists have found that magma is mostly a liquid that has a |
|load of the mineral crystals in it and has the consistency of mush. Magma then crystallizes into a corporation of minerals and |
|some of these minerals crystallize faster than the others. When these minerals crystallize they leave the remnants of the liquid |
|that has a changed chemical composition. As magma cools it eventually starts evolving as it goes through the crust and interacts |
|with other rocks. You can tell the types of these igneous rocks by the texture of the rocks from the mineral grain size. |
|Extrusive rocks cool more quickly from seconds to months and have very small or invisible grains. Intrusive rocks cools slower and|
|have small to medium sized grains. Plutonic rocks cool over a period of millions of years, far underground and can have their |
|grains to be as large as pebbles. Intrusive and plutonic rocks have a phaneritic texture. Igneous rocks are put in different |
|classes depending on the minerals that they contain. The primary minerals in these rocks are very hard such as, quartz, olivine, |
|pyroxemses, feldspar, and amphiboles. These together are called ???dark minerals??? by geologists. They also contain soft minerals |
|such as mica. The two main know igneous rocks are granite and basalt. Basalt is a fine-grained, dark material of magma intrusions|
|and many lava flows. The dark minerals are rich in iron and magnesium and this is the reason that basalt is also called a mafic |
|rock. Basal is considered mafic and could be either intrusive or extrusive. Granite is a light, coarse-grained and is exposed |
|after deep erosion. In general, granite rocks are a less dense rock compared to basalt and actually float higher than the oceanic |
|crust on top of the Earth??™s mantle. The history and behaviors of granite rocks are among one of the highest geology??™s most |
|intricate and deepest mysteries (Murck, Skinner, & Mackenzie, 2008). |Write a 500- to 750-word explanation regarding the role of plate tectonics in the origin of metamorphic rocks.|Metamorphic rocks are formed when a rock changes after it undergoes an extreme temperature or pressure change. The temperature |
|must be at a high enough temperature to change the matter and reorganize it within the rock without being hot enough to melt the |
|rock. Hot magma makes it way to the surface by pushing itself to the convergent plate boundaries and divergent plate boundary. |
|The magma has contact with other rocks as it begins to rise to the surface. The magmas is hot enough that it starts to heat up the|
|other rocks around it and as these rocks start to heat up they start to change and turn into metamorphic rocks. The process of |
|this is called metamorphism. During this process of rock change, many things are destroyed such as, vesicles, graded bedding, |
|porphyritic textures, and stratification. When these materials are destroyed, new minerals are put into their place and create a|
|new texture in the rock. This is a major group of rocks called metamorphic rocks that are the result largely from the continuous |
|motion of plate tectonics. Metamorphic rocks can be formed from many different rocks such as sedimentary, previously metamorphose |
|rocks, or igneous rocks. When a metamorphosis starts at a convergent plate boundary from intense pressure this is then called |
|regional metamorphism. When two plates end up colliding, the Earth??™s crust then folds and faults from the intense pressures that |
|change the large areas of the earth??™s crust into metamorphic rocks. An instance of the plate tectonic process of the metamorphic |
|process would be mountain ranges. The metamorphic process occurs while the rocks remain solid. If the rocks reach the point |
|where it can melt it then becomes an igneous rock. The minerals that are in the metamorphic rocks do not crystallize from the |
|magma; however, they are only stable that high pressures and temperatures that are found deep tin the Earth??™s crust. Light-colored|
|sills and dikes of igneous rocks cut the metamorphic rocks and during the metamorphism new plate mineral grains start to form and |
|grown in the direction of wherever the least amount of stress is and then produces a planar texture that is called foliation. |
|Rocks that only has one mineral or ones that recrystallize in the absence of deforming stresses are not able to develop a strong |
|foliation and then develop a granular texture, such as limestone. Mylonite develops whenever a shearing along a certain fracture |
|forms then small grains by ductile destruction of larger grains. The main types of foliated metamorphic rocks could include |
|schist, gneiss, slate, and mylonite. Important non-foliate or granular rocks include marble, granulite, greenstone, and quartzite.|
|They are all distinguished differently by their textures and then are distinguished by their compositions (Murck, Skinner, & |
|Mackenzie, 2008). |Murck, B. W., Skinner, B. J., & Mackenzie, D. (2010). Visualizing geology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Comparison Paper

Technology is getting more and more advanced every day. In this world of competition when it comes to televisions, cameras, music, and video games, people are always looking to have the newest and latest thing out. One of the major topics in the entertainment industry is which is better, DVD or Blu-Ray Despite the similarities, the Blu-ray disc??™s advantages greatly out weigh those of Digital Video Disc.
When it comes to media quality, DVDs have less to offer in comparison to Blu-rays. A DVD presents the consumer with a restricted 480p resolution. 480p, which is 480 megapixels, is slightly better than the image resolution available on basic television. The images on the screen may not be very clear and can sometimes look blurry. The DVD menu also lacks accessibility for special features making it hard to navigate through screens. The audio quality comes in two formats Dolby Digital and DTS. Dolby digital and DTS (Digital Theater System) are two different features that allow the DVD to project audio in surround sound.
Blu-rays have more to propose to a buyer. Blu-ray discs offer a better image quality. The Blu-ray image resolution is at 1080p, which is currently the highest quality available. Blu-rays are so clear and detailed that sometimes people feel like they are in the movie theater. The audio features on a Blu-ray are Dolby True HD, and DTS HD Master. Just like the DVD, these are two audio formats that allow the Blu-ray to project audio in surround sound but these formats give a sound that is very similar to the master studio sound. One thing very neat thing about the Blu-rays is the special feature menu. Blu-rays have a great improvement that allows a person to access the main menu while still watching the movie as opposed to a regular DVD, which forces you to exit the movie just to access the main menu.
The availability of DVDs surpasses those of Blu-rays. There are over ninety thousand available titles to choose from. You can find anything from shows and movies to documentaries and music videos. The cost for DVDs can range from retail price at twelve dollars to five-dollar sale bins at a local Wal-Mart, or the used section at a blockbuster video rental store. Also DVD players are fairly cheap. You can buy a DVD player nowadays for one hundred dollars or less. You can even find some at garage sales or flea markets. DVDs are also compatible with almost all gaming system consoles.
The downside for the Blu-ray is the lack of available titles compared to DVDs. There are roughly a thousand titles, but the selection will continue to grow within the years. A Blu-ray price can range from twenty-three dollars to twenty-eight dollars. Blu-ray players can be a bit costly. Blu-ray players are on sale anywhere from one hundred and seventy dollars to four hundred dollars. The Blu-ray is only compatible with one gaming system, which is the PlayStation three; it is the only game system advanced enough to play them.
Many people can argue that DVDs and Blu-rays are the same thing. Yes, DVDs maybe cheap and available everywhere, but when comparing the advantages, the Blu-ray discs exceed the DVDs in almost every category. For a few more dollars, one can have a close to a movie theater experience right at home. I believe Blu-rays will continue to expand and grow and will one day become what the DVD is today.

Comparison of Political Theories

oicism? (Greek? ????) was a school of? Hellenistic philosophy? founded in? Athens? by? Zeno of Citium? in the early? 3rd century BC. The Stoics considered destructive emotions to be the result of errors in judgment, and that a? sage, or person of “moral and intellectual perfection,” would not suffer such emotions.[1]? Stoics were concerned with the active relationship between cosmic? determinism? and human? freedom, and the belief that it is? virtuous? to maintain a? will? (called? prohairesis) that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life, and they thought that the best indication of an individuals philosophy was not what a person said but how he behaved.[2]? Later Stoics, such as? Seneca? and? Epictetus, emphasized that because “virtue is sufficient for happiness,” a sage was immune to misfortune. This belief is similar to the meaning of the phrase stoic calm, though the phrase does not include the “radical ethical” Stoic views that only a? sage? can be considered truly free, and that all moral corruptions are equally vicious.[1]
Stoic doctrine was a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout? Greece? and the? Roman Empire, from its founding until the closing of all philosophy schools in 529? AD by order of the Emperor? Justinian I, who perceived their? pagan? character to be at odds with the Christian faith.[3][4]name.[11][12]? Unlike the other schools of philosophy, such as the? Epicureans, Zeno chose to teach his philosophy in a public space, which was a? colonnade? overlooking the central gathering place of Athens, the? Agora.Zenos ideas developed from those of the? Cynics, whose founding father,? Antisthenes, had been a disciple of? Socrates. Zenos most influential follower was? Chrysippus, who was responsible for the moulding of what is now call Stoicism. Later Roman Stoics focused on promoting a life in harmony within the universe, over which one has no direct control.Scholars usually divide the history of Stoicism into three phases: ? Early Stoa, from the founding of the school by Zeno to? Antipater.
? Middle Stoa, including? Panaetius? and? Posidonius.
? Late Stoa, including? Musonius Rufus,? Seneca,? Epictetus, and? Marcus Aurelius.
Unfortunately, as? A. A. Long? states, no complete work by any Stoic philosopher survives from the first two phases of Stoicism. Only Roman texts from the Late Stoa survive.[13][edit]Stoic logicDiodorus Cronus, who was one of Zenos teachers, is considered the philosopher who first introduced and developed an approach and system of logic now known as? propositional logic. This is an approach to logic based on statements, making it very different from Aristotles? term logic. Later,? Chrysippus? developed this approach to logic into the system that was Stoic logic. New interest in Stoic logic came in the 20th? century, when important developments in logic were based on propositional logic. Susanne Bobzien wrote, “The many close similarities between Chrysippus philosophical logic and that ofGottlob Frege? are especially striking.”[14]? Bobzien also notes that “Chrysippus wrote over 300 books on logic, on virtually any topic logic today concerns itself with, including? speech act theory,? sentence analysis,? singular? and? plural expressions, types of? predicates,? indexicals,? existential propositions,? sentential connectives,? negations,? disjunctions,? conditionals,? logical consequence,? valid argument? forms,? theory of deduction,? propositional logic,? modal logic,? tense logic,? epistemic logic,? logic of suppositions,? logic of imperatives, ambiguity and logicalparadoxes.”[15][edit]EpistemologyThe Stoics believed in the? certainty? that? knowledge? can be attained through the use of? reason.? Truth? can be distinguished from? fallacy; even if, in practice, only an approximation can be made. According to the Stoics, the? senses? are constantly receiving sensations: pulsations which pass from objects through the senses to the? mind, where they leave behind an impression (phantasia). The mind has the ability to judge (sunkatathesis)??”approve or reject??”an impression, enabling it to distinguish a true representation of? reality? from one which is false. Some impressions can be assented to immediately, but others can only achieve varying degrees of hesitant approval which can be labeled? belief? or opinion (doxa). It is only through the use of reason that we can achieve clear comprehension and conviction (katalepsis).? Certain? and true knowledge (episteme), achievable by the Stoic sage, can be attained only by verifying the conviction with the expertise of ones peers and the collective judgment of humankind.Make for yourself a definition or description of the thing which is presented to you, so as to see distinctly what kind of a thing it is in its substance, in its nudity, in its complete entirety, and tell yourself its proper name, and the names of the things of which it has been compounded, and into which it will be resolved. For nothing is so productive of elevation of mind as to be able to examine methodically and truly every object which is presented to you in life, and always to look at things so as to see at the same time what kind of universe this is, and what kind of use everything performs in it, and what value everything has with reference to the whole.[16][edit]Stoic physics and cosmologyMain article:? Stoic physics
According to the Stoics, the? universe? is a material, reasoning substance, known as? God? or? Nature, which the Stoics divided into two classes, the active and the passive. The passive substance is? matter, which “lies sluggish, a substance ready for any use, but sure to remain unemployed if no one sets it in motion.”[17]? The active substance, which can be called? Fate, or Universal Reason (Logos), is an intelligent? aether? or primordial fire, which acts on the passive matter:The universe itself is god and the universal outpouring of its soul; it is this same worlds guiding principle, operating in mind and reason, together with the common nature of things and the totality which embraces all existence; then the foreordained might and necessity of the future; then fire and the principle of aether; then those elements whose natural state is one of flux and transition, such as water, earth, and air; then the sun, the moon, the stars; and the universal existence in which all things are contained.[18]Everything is subject to the laws of Fate, for the Universe acts only according to its own nature, and the nature of the passive matter which it governs. The? souls? of? people? and? animalsare emanations from this primordial fire, and are, likewise, subject to Fate:Constantly regard the universe as one living being, having one substance and one soul; and observe how all things have reference to one perception, the perception of this one living being; and how all things act with one movement; and how all things are the cooperating causes of all things that exist; observe too the continuous spinning of the thread and the structure of the web.[19]Individual souls are perishable by nature, and can be “transmuted and diffused, assuming a fiery nature by being received into the Seminal Reason (logos spermatikos) of the Universe.”[20]? Since right Reason is the foundation of both humanity and the universe, it follows that the goal of life is to live according to? Reason, that is, to live a life according to? Nature.[edit]Stoic ethics and virtuesThe ancient Stoics are often misunderstood because the terms they used pertained to different concepts in the past than they do today. The word stoic has come to mean unemotional or indifferent to pain, because Stoic ethics taught freedom from passion by following reason. The Stoics did not seek to extinguish emotions; rather, they sought to transform them by a resolute askesis which enables a person to develop clear judgment and inner calm.[21]? Logic, reflection, and concentration were the methods of such self-discipline.Borrowing from the? Cynics, the foundation of Stoic ethics is that good lies in the state of the? soul? itself; in wisdom and self-control. Stoic ethics stressed the rule: “Follow where reason leads.” One must therefore strive to be free of the? passions, bearing in mind that the ancient meaning of passion was “anguish” or “suffering”,[22]? that is, “passively” reacting to external events??”somewhat different from the modern use of the word. A distinction was made between? pathos? (plural? pathe) which is normally translated as “passion”,? propathos? or instinctive reaction (e.g. turning pale and trembling when confronted by physical danger) and? eupathos, which is the mark of the Stoic sage (sophos). The? eupatheia? are feelings resulting from correct judgment in the same way as the passions result from incorrect judgment.The idea was to be free of? suffering? through? apatheia? (Greek:? ???????) or? peace of mind? (literally,without passion),[23]? where peace of mind was understood in the ancient sense??”beingobjective? or having “clear judgment” and the maintenance of? equanimity? in the face of lifes highs and lows.For the Stoics, reason meant not only using logic, but also understanding the processes of nature??”the? logos, or universal reason, inherent in all things. Living according to reason and virtue, they held, is to live in harmony with the divine order of the universe, in recognition of the common reason and essential value of all people. The four cardinal virtues of the Stoic philosophy are? wisdom? (Sophia),? courage? (Andreia),? justice? (Dikaiosyne), and? temperance? (Sophrosyne), a classification derived from the teachings of? Plato.Following? Socrates, the Stoics held that unhappiness and? evil? are the results of human ignorance of the reason in nature. If someone is unkind, it is because they are unaware of their own universal reason which would lead to the conclusion of kindness. The solution to evil and unhappiness then, is the practice of Stoic philosophy??”to examine ones own judgments and behavior and determine where they have diverged from the universal reason of nature.The Stoics accepted that? suicide? was permissible for the wise person in circumstances that might prevent them from living a virtuous life.[24]? Plutarch? held that accepting life under tyranny would have compromised? Catos self-consistency (constantia) as a Stoic and impaired his freedom to make the honourable moral choices.[25]? Suicide could be justified if one fell victim to severe pain or disease,[24]? but otherwise suicide would usually be seen as a rejection of ones social duty.[26][edit]The doctrine of “things indifferent”In philosophical terms, things that are indifferent are outside the application of? moral law, that is without tendency to either promote or obstruct moral ends. Actions neither required nor forbidden by the moral law, or which do not affect? morality, are called morally indifferent. The doctrine of things indifferent (????????,? adiaphora) arose in the Stoic school as a? corollary? of its diametric opposition of virtue and vice (?????????? kathekon? and ??????????? hamartemata, respectively “convenient actions,” or actions in accordance with nature, and mistakes). As a result of this? dichotomy, a large class of objects were left unassigned and thus regarded as indifferent.Eventually three sub-classes of “things indifferent” developed: things to be preferred because they assisted life according to nature; things to be avoided because they hindered it; and things indifferent in the narrower sense.The principle of? adiaphora? was also common to the Cynics and? Sceptics. The conception of things indifferent is, according to? Kant, extra-moral. The doctrine of things indifferent was revived during the? Renaissance? by? Philip Melanchthon.[edit]Spiritual exercise[pic]
Marcus Aurelius, the Stoic emperor
Philosophy for a Stoic is not just a set of beliefs or ethical claims, it is a way of life involving constant practice and training (or? askesis, seeasceticism). Stoic philosophical and spiritual practices included logic, Socratic dialogue and self-dialogue, contemplation of death, training attention to remain in the present moment (similar to some forms of? Eastern? meditation), daily reflection on everyday problems and possible solutions,? hypomnemata, and so on. Philosophy for a Stoic is an active process of constant practice and self-reminder.In his? Meditations, Marcus Aurelius defines several such practices. For example, in Book II, part 1:Say to yourself in the early morning: I shall meet today ungrateful, violent, treacherous, envious, uncharitable men. All of these things have come upon them through ignorance of real good and ill… I can neither be harmed by any of them, for no man will involve me in wrong, nor can I be angry with my kinsman or hate him; for we have come into the world to work together…The practices of spiritual exercises have been described as influencing those of? reflective practice? by Seamus Mac Suibhne .[27]? Parallels between Stoic spiritual exercises and modern? cognitive-behavioural therapy? have been detailed at length in Robertsons? The Philosophy of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy.[28][edit]Social philosophyA distinctive feature of Stoicism is its? cosmopolitanism: All people are manifestations of the one universal spirit and should, according to the Stoics, live in brotherly love and readily help one another. In the? Discourses,? Epictetus? comments on mans relationship with the world: “Each human being is primarily a citizen of his own commonwealth; but he is also a member of the great city of gods and men, where of the city political is only a copy.”[29]? This sentiment echoes that of? Socrates, who said “I am not an? Athenian? or a? Corinthian, but a citizen of the world.”[30]They held that external differences such as rank and wealth are of no importance in social relationships. Thus, before the rise of? Christianity, Stoics advocated the brotherhood of humanity and the natural equality of all human beings. Stoicism became the most influential school of the Greco??“Roman world, and produced a number of remarkable writers and personalities, such as? Cato the Younger? and Epictetus.In particular, they were noted for their urging of? clemency? toward? slaves. Seneca exhorted, “Kindly remember that he whom you call your slave sprang from the same stock, is smiled upon by the same skies, and on equal terms with yourself breathes, lives, and dies.”[31][edit]Stoicism and ChristianitySee also:? Neostoicism
Stoicism was later regarded by the? Fathers of the Church? as a pagan philosophy,[3][4]? nonetheless, some of the central philosophical concepts of Stoicism were employed by the early Christian writers. Examples include the terms “logos”, “virtue”, “Spirit”, and “conscience”.[32]? But the parallels go well beyond the sharing (or borrowing) of terminology. Both Stoicism and Christianity assert an inner freedom in the face of the external world, a belief in human kinship with Nature (or God), and a sense of the innate depravity??”or “persistent evil”??”of humankind.[32]? Both encourage? askesis? with respect to the passions and inferior emotions (viz. lust, envy and anger) so that the higher possibilities of ones humanity can be awakened and developed.The major difference between the two philosophies is Stoicisms? pantheism? where God is never fully transcendent but always? immanent. God as the world-creating entity is personalised in Christian thought, but Stoicism equates God with the totality of the universe. Also, Stoicism, unlike Christianity, posits no beginning or end to the universe, and no continued individual existence beyond death.[32]? Even so, Stoic writings such as the? Meditations? of? Marcus Aurelius? have been highly regarded throughout the centuries.? St. Ambrose of Milan? was known for applying Stoic philosophy to his theology.HELLENISTIC PERIODe? Hellenistic period? describes the era which followed the conquests of? Alexander the Great. During this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenith in Europe and Asia. It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decline or decadence,[1]? between the brilliance of the Greek? Classical Era? and the emergence of the? Roman Empire. Usually taken to begin with the death of Alexander in 323 BC, the Hellenistic period may either be seen to end with the final conquest of the Greek heartlands by? Rome? in 146 BC; or the final defeat of the last remaining successor-state to Alexanders empire, thePtolemaic kingdom? of Egypt in 31/30 BC.[2]? The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of colonists which established Greek cities and kingdoms in? Asia? and? Africa.[3]he Greek kingdom of Bactria (or Greco-Bactrian kingdom) began as an offshoot of the Seleucid empire. The sheer size of the eastern Seleucid dTomains must mean that the? satraps? governing the provinces had significant freedom from central control. In around 250 BC, the governor of Bactria, Sogdiana and Margiana, one Diodotus, took this process to its logical extreme and declared himself king. At around the same time, the re-emergence of a native Persian dynasty under the? Parthian? king? Arsaceseffectively cut the nascent Greco-Bactrian kingdom off from the rest of the Seleucid empire. This probably allowed it to maintain its independence in the medium term, but in the long-term may have contributed to its decline and fall; it could no longer receive manpower or aid from other Hellenistic regions at sufficient levels.Diodotus II, son of Diodotus, was overthrown in about 230 BC by? Euthydemus, possibly the satrap of Sogdiana, who then started his own dynasty. In approx 210 BC, the Greco-Bactrian kingdom was invaded by a resurgent Seleucid empire under? Antiochus III. Whilst victorious in the field, it seems Antiochus came to realise that there were advantages in the status quo (perhaps sensing that Bactria could not be governed from Syria), and married one of his daughters to Euthydemuss son, thus legitimising Greco-Bactria. Soon afterwards the Greco-Bactrian kingdom seems to have expanded, possibly taking advantage of the defeat of the Parthian king? Arsaces II? by Antiochus.Demetrius, son and successor of Euthydemus, invaded north-western India in 180 BC, after the destruction of the Mauryan empire there; the Mauryans were probably allies of the Bactrians (and Seleucids). The exact justification for the invasion remains unclear, but by about 175 BC, the Greeks ruled over parts of north-western India.This period also marks the beginning of the obfuscation of Greco-Bactrian history. Demetrius possibly died about 180 BC; numismatic evidence suggest the existence of several other kings shortly thereafter. It is probable that at this point that the Greco-Bactrian kingdom split into several semi-independent regions for some years;? Euthydemus II? (son of Demetrius) seems to have ruled in Bactria, with? Agathocles,? Antimachus I? and? Pantaleon? ruling in India. In around 171 BC the usurper? Eucratides I? swept to power in Bactria, removing whichever king(s) were actually ruling at that point. Similarly, in India, the general? Apollodotus I? seems to have assumed more-or-less complete power by around 170 BC, thereby marking the true start of the? Indo-Greek kingdom? (see below).Eucratides may have been a member of the Seleucid royal family, who set out to (re)claim the Bactrian lands. Eucratides certainly had a vast and prestigious coinage, suggesting he was a ruler of considerable importance. He appears to have re-invigorated the Bactrian kingdom, although territory was lost to Parthia in the west. He fought with the Indo-Greeks, and appears to have occupied India up to the river? Indus? for a while. However, his murder in 145 BC triggered a civil war which fatally weakened the kingdom as his sons? Eucratides II? and? Heliocles Ifought each other. Heliocles was the last Greek to clearly rule Bactria, his power collapsing in the face of tribal invasions of Bactria, by about 130 BC. However, Greek urban civilisation seems to have continued in Bactria after the fall of the kingdom, having a hellenising effect on the tribes which had displaced Greek-rule.[edit]The Indo-Greek KingdomsMain article:? Indo-Greeks[pic]
Silver? drachma? of the? Indo-Greek? king? Menander I? (155-130 BC).
Obv:? Greek? legend, ???????? ??????? ????????? “[coin] of Saviour King Menander”.
Rev:? Kharosthi? legend: MAHARAJA TRATASA MENADRASA “Saviour King Menander”.? Athena? advancing right, with thunderbolt and shield.? Taxila? mint mark.
The separation of the Indo-Greek kingdom from the Greco-Bactrian kingdom resulted in an even more isolated position from the west, and thus the details of the Indo-Greek kingdom are even more obscure than for Bactria. Many supposed kings in India are known only because of coins bearing their name. The numismatic evidence together with archaeological finds and the scant historical records suggest that the fusion of eastern and western cultures reached its peak in the Indo-Greek kingdom.As mentioned, Apollodotus made himself king of India in around 170 BC. The exact fate of Apollodotus is unknown, but he seems to have extended the conquests east into? Gandhara? and western? Punjab. In about 155 (or 165) BC he seems to have been succeeded by the most successful of the Indo-Greek kings,? Menander I. Menander converted to Buddhism, and seems to have been a great patron of the religion; he is remembered in some Buddhist texts as Milinda. He also expanded the kingdom further east into Punjab, though these conquests were rather ephemeral.After the death of Menander (c. 130 BC), the Kingdom appears to have fragmented, with several kings attested contemporaneously in different regions. This inevitably weakened the Greek position, and territory seems to have been lost progressively. Around 70 BC, the western regions of? Arachosia? and? Paropamisadae? were lost to tribal invasions, presumably by those tribes responsible for the end of the Bactrian kingdom. The resulting? Indo-Scythian? kingdom seems to have gradually pushed the remaining Indo-Greek kingdom towards the east. The Indo-Greek kingdom appears to have lingered on in western Punjab until about 10 AD when finally ended by the Indo-Scythians.[edit]The Kingdom of PontusMain article:? Kingdom of Pontus
The Kingdom of Pontus was a Hellenistic Kingdom on the southern coast of the Black Sea. It was founded by Mithridates I in 291 BC and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic in 63 BC. Despite being ruled by a dynasty which was a descendant of the Persian Achaemenid Empire it became hellenized due to the influence of the Greek cities on the Black Sea and its neighboring kingdoms. The kingdom grew to its largest extent under Mithridates VI the great, who conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, Lesser Armenia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia. After a long struggle with Rome in the Mithridatic wars, Pontus was defeated, part of it was incorporated into the Roman Republic as the province Bithynia and Pontus and the eastern half survived as a client Kingdom.[edit]Rise of RomeWidespread Roman interference in the Greek World was probably inevitable given the general manner of the ascendency of the? Roman Republic. This Roman-Greek interaction began as a consequence of the Greek city-states located along the coast of southern Italy. Rome had come to dominate the Italian peninsula, and desired the submission of the Greek cities to its rule. Although they initially resisted, allying themselves with? Pyrrhus of Epirus, and defeating the Romans at several battles, the Greek cities were unable to maintain this position and were absorbed by the Roman republic. Shortly afterwards, Rome became involved in Sicily, fighting against the? Carthaginans? in the? First Punic War. The end result was the complete conquest of Sicily, including its previously powerful Greek cities, by the Romans.The independent cities of? Magna Graecia? did not form part of the Hellenistic domains and had, by this time, been eclipsed in power by the Hellenistic kingdoms of the east. They also remained independent at a time when the Mediterranean was increasingly dominated by great powers. This, and their proximity to Rome, had made them easy and obvious targets. Conversely, the major Hellenistic realms were not in the immediate Roman sphere of influence, and were powerful enough to deter Roman aggression. The events which, in retrospect, marked the beginning of the end for the Hellenistic kingdoms could have been avoided; even if it seems likely that a collision between them and Rome would have ultimately occurred.Roman entanglement in the Balkans began, as so often, with trade. Illyrian piratical raids on Roman merchants twice led to a Roman task force invading Illyria (the? First? and,? Second Illyrian Wars). Tension between Macedon and Rome increased when the young king of Macedon,? Philip V? harboured one of the chief pirates,? Demetrius of Pharos? [4]? (a former client of Rome). As a result, in an attempt to reduce Roman influence in the Balkans, Philip allied himself with Carthage after? Hannibal? had dealt the Romans a massive defeat at the? Battle of Cannae? (216 BC) during the? Second Punic War. Forcing the Romans to fight on another front when they were at a nadir of manpower gained Philip the lasting enmity of the Romans; the only real result from the somewhat insubstantial? First Macedonian War? (215??“202 BC).Once the? Second Punic War? had been resolved, and the Romans had begun to regather their strength, they looked to re-assert their influence in the Balkans, and to curb the expansion of Philip. A pretext for war was provided by Philips refusal to end his? war? with? Attalid? Pergamum, and? Rhodes, both Roman allies.[5]? The Romans, also allied with the? Aetolian League? of Greek city-states (which resented Philips power), thus declared war on Macedon in 200 BC, starting the? Second Macedonian War. This ended with a decisive Roman victory at the? Battle of Cynoscephalae? (197 BC). Like most Roman peace treaties of the period, the resultant Peace of Flaminius was designed to utterly crush the power of the defeated party; a massive indemnity was levied, Philips fleet was surrendered to Rome, and Macedon was effectively returned to its ancient boundaries, losing influence over the city-states of southern Greece, and land in Thrace and Asia Minor. The result was the end of Macedon as a major power in the Mediterranean.As a result of the confusion in Greece at the end of the Second Macedonian War, the Seleucid Empire also became entangled with the Romans. The Seleucid? Antiochus III? had allied with Philip V of Macedon in 203 BC, agreeing that they should jointly conquer the lands of the boy-king of Egypt,? Ptolemy V. After defeating Ptolemy in the? Fifth Syrian War, Antiochus concentrated on occupying the Ptolemaic possessions in Asia Minor. However, this brought Antiochus into conflict with Rhodes and Pergamum, two important Roman allies, and began a cold-war between Rome and Antiochus (not helped by the presence of Hannibal at the Seleucid court).[1]? Meanwhile, in mainland Greece, the? Aetolian League, which had sided with Rome against Macedon, now grew to resent the Roman presence in Greece. This presented Antiochus III with a pretext to invade Greece and liberate it from Roman influence, thus starting the? Roman-Syrian War? (192??“188 BC). Another decisive Roman victory at the? Battle of Magnesia? (190 BC) saw the defeat of Antiochus. Another crippling treaty followed, with Seleucid possessions in Asia Minor removed and given to Rhodes and Pergamum, the size of the Seleucid navy reduced, and a massive war indemnity invoked.Thus, in less than twenty years, Rome had destroyed the power of one of the successor states, crippled another, and firmly entrenched its influence over Greece. This was primarily a result of the over-ambition of the Macedonian kings, and their unintended provocation of Rome; though Rome was quick to exploit the situation. In another twenty years, the Macedonian kingdom was no more. Seeking to re-assert Macedonian power and Greek independence, Philip Vs son? Perseus? incurred the wrath of the Romans, resulting in the? Third Macedonian War? (171-168 BC). Victorious, the Romans abolished the Macedonian kingdom, replacing it with four puppet republics; these lasted a further twenty years before Macedon was formally annexed as a Roman province (146 BC).The Attalid dynasty of Pergamum lasted little longer; a Roman ally until the end, its final King? Attalus III? died in 133 BC without an heir, and taking the alliance to its natural conclusion, willed Pergamum to the Roman Republic.[6]Contrarily, having so firmly intricated themselves into Greek affairs, the Romans now completely ignored the rapidly disintegrating Seleucid empire (perhaps because it posed no threat); and left the Ptolemaic kingdom to decline quietly, whilst acting as a protector of sorts, in as much as to stop other powers taking Egypt over (including the famous line-in-the-sandincident? when the Seleucid? Antiochus IV Epiphanes? tried to invade Egypt).[1]? Eventually, instability in the near east resulting from the power vacuum left by the collapse of the Seleucid empire caused the Roman? proconsul? Pompey the Great? to abolish the Seleucid rump state, absorbing much of Syria into the Roman republic.[6]? Famously, the end of Ptolemaic Egypt came as the final act in the republican civil war between the Roman triumvirs? Mark Anthony? and? Augustus Caesar. After the defeat of Anthony and his lover, the last Ptolemaic monarch,Cleopatra VII? at the? Battle of Actium, Augustus invaded Egypt and took it as his own personal fiefdom.[6]? He thereby completed both the destruction of the Hellenistic kingdoms and the Roman republic, and ended (in hindsight) the Hell