History

Concept Comparison and Analysis Across Theories
Core concepts embody a theory creating the bases for the theory or model. In nursing, concepts help in the development of theories. Theorists have developed different models or theories but have common core concepts. This paper will identify a core concept that several theorists have in share compare and analyze the concept definitions among the selected theories, and discuss the practical use of the one theory
Common Concept
The core concept common to two or more theories is nursing. Dorothea Orem??™s and Virginia Henderson??™s use the nursing concept in their theory to define the role of nursing. Orem defines nursing as the ???actions deliberately selected and performed by nurses to help individuals or groups under their care to maintain or change conditions in themselves or their environments???(Current Nursing, 2010, para. 4). Henderson defines nursing as nurses assisting the individual, ill or healthy, in the performing activities that contribute to the individuals health or recuperation(even a peaceful death) that the individual performs without help if armed with strength, resolve or information (Current Nursing, 2010, para. 6). The concepts are common in that nursing support the patient in recovering their optimal health. An individual that is experiencing difficulties or self-care deficit Orem defined need nursing interventions. The difference in Henderson and Orem??™s nursing concept is that Henderson??™s concept determines that nursing is needed when the individual is healthy or sick. In contrast, Orem??™s nursing concept requires patient to have a self-deficit for nursing support. The concepts are applicable in different nursing settings because the goals of both concepts are the same
Orem??™s Self-Care
Theory Dorothea Orem Self-care model uses the meta-paradigms of nursing, person, health, and environment. Orem claimed a philosophy of modern realism and her self-care theory was that of logical positivism. The Self-care Model is comprised of self-care, self-care deficit, and nursing system. Self-care is the ???practice of activities that individual initiates and performs on their own behalf in maintaining life, health and well-being??? (Current Nursing, 2010, para. 4).Self??“care deficit requires nursing action. According to Fitzpatrick & Whall (2005),???nursing is needed when persons are unable to provide for themselves the amount and quality of self-care needed to regulate their own functioning and development because of personal health problems??? (p. 104). Nursing system delineates how the nurse, patient, or both meet anindividual??™s self-care needs. In clinical practice self-care is the ability for an individual to perform activities to maintain health independently. An individual unable to perform activities to maintain health experiences self-care deficit. Now nursing action is necessary. Nurses construct interventions to ???provide or manage self-care actions for sustaining health or recovering from illness or injury??? (Taylor, LeMone, Lillis, & Lynn, 2008, p. 86). In essence, nursing meets the needs of the individual through teaching, support, and environmental changes that promote the patient??™s ability to perform self-care again. The common concept discussed in this paper was nursing, which is essential to Henderson and Orem??™s theory. Nursing provides the actions taken to promote, maintain and recover an individual??™s health. Orem??™s Self-care Model demonstrated the role of nursing incaring for an individual. Nursing provides the interventions required to help an individual back to self-care or optimal health and well-beingReferences
Current Nursing. (2010).
Dorothea Orem??™s Theory
. Retrieved fromhttp://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.htmlCurrent Nursing. (2010).
Virginia Henderson??™s Need Theory
. Retrieved fromhttp://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Henderson.htmlFitzpatrick, J. J., & Whall, A. (2005).
Conceptual Models of Nursing: Analysis and Application
(4 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Taylor, C. R., LeMone, P., Lillis, C., & Lynn, P. (2008).
Fundamentals of Nursing; The art and science of nursing care
(6 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

History

Pole to Pole ProjectKazakhstan & Iran IntroductionI am investigating two countries along the 60E line of longitude. I will be studying the following two countries: Kazakhstan and Iran. I have chosen these two countries because I don??™t know a lot about them and I wanted to know more.
I think Iran will be more developed than Kazakhstan. I??™ll be looking at three indicators to show me how developed each country is compared with each other. These indicators are;
What Jobs People Do
What the Education Is Like
What the Population Is
I have chosen these three indicators because I think these are the threeindicators that will tell me the most about my two countries. Without looking at the data I??™ve collected I think Iran is most likely going to be the most developed out of the two countries, because I??™ve seen pictures of cities and towns in Iran and I don??™t even know whether there is a city in Kazakhstan.MethodologyThe three indicators I have chosen are;
What Jobs People Do
What the Education Is Like
What the Population Is LikeIndicator 1 will tell me what jobs people do so if a relatively small amount of people have good jobs I would say that the country is less developed.
Indicator 2 will tell me what opportunities there are for citizens in their educational systems.
Indicator 3 will tell me what the population is like so if the country is too overpopulated and a lot of people are homeless I would consider the country to be less developed. Kazakhstan
Birth Rate ??“ 15.78 / 1000
Life Expectancy ??“ 66.55 years
Education Per Person ??“ Male ??“ 99.1%
Female ??“ 97.7% These figures tell me that Kazakhstan is more developed than I thought it was. My preconceived ideas came from a film called BORAT and although a comedy, it portrayed Kazakhstan as a very poor place with a lot of homeless people with no running cars. On the contrary, I have found Kazakhstan is very developed. It??™s education closely relates to that of the United States with all children starting in Kindergarten and opportunities right up to degree level being offered thereafter. I know this because after researching these figures and looking at pictures of the country, I know now that it is an MEDC.IranBirth Rate ??“ 16.83 / 1000
Life Expectancy ??“ 69.96 years
Education Per Person- Male ??“ 99.1%
Female- 73%These figures tell me that Iran is more developed as a country than I thought at first. I think Iran Is considerably well developed and I know this because in some countries people don??™t even live to the age of 50, but in Iran the life expectancy is 69 years old. The educational system is one which has seen much change in Iran since the revolution in the 1970??™s. Women are now seen to take up 50% of the university places in Iran which shows a significant change in this countries views.ConclusionAfter researching my two chosen countries I have decided that Iran is the more developed country. I know this because although the figures I have gathered were close, Iran??™s were the better ones which overall shows that the country is more progressed than Kazakhstan. Further, I think this is what I was expecting to find.Thank you for reading my Pole to Pole Project.

Compensation Plan

InterClean Sales Team Compensation PlanProposal to: Janet Durham, Vice President of Human Resources
Other Human Resources ManagersFrom: Brenda Knox, Midlevel Sales ManagerRe: Proposed Compensation Plan for new InterClean Sales Team The success of the merger between InterClean and EnviroTech depends on communicating and implementing a compensation system that addresses the needs of both the former EnviroTech and the InterClean sales personnel. This proposal outlines the organizational reward system I recommend InterClean adopt for the new sales teams. It is imperative that the perception of the compensation and benefits package be fair and equitable by team members. This proposal includes a brief synopsis of the pay systems currently used to compensate my team members, and the components of my proposed pay-for-performance system and why I believe it will be effective. An objective of the compensation package is to motivate my team to reach peak performance while accomplishing InterClean??™s strategic goals. My plan provides significant benefits to both the individual employee and to InterClean. Cascio (2006) asserts ???pay for performance is the new mantra (p. 415)??? and I encourage InterClean to adopt and embrace this philosophy of adopting programs to motivate employees and reward performance.
My team is six members, not including myself, Susan Burnt, Shane Huck, and Dennis White are from Interclean and classified as sales representatives. They are paid on a straight commission. Eric Borden and Ving Hsu are senior sales specialists from EnviroTech and they are paid a base salary and eligible for the sales bonus program. Tom Gonzalez is a sales manager from EnviroTech and is paid a base salary and eligible for the sales bonus program. My proposal includes offering my team members a base salary with an ability to supplement base salary with both team and individual bonus awards. I reviewed base salary information published by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009) on their website and job specific salary information from Salary.com (2010). I recommend the following base salary ranges: Sales Managers (could also include the Sr. Sales Specialists) $95K – $209K, and Sales Representatives- $49K – $109K. I do not have the specific information for each team member in regard to his or her total compensation packages, but request involvement and to be present when the HR representative talks to each individual. It is important that each employee??™s compensation be at least at the same level as before the merger. The base salary determination needs to address the changing strategic goals of InterClean and realize that the new strategy will require high levels of commitment from each individual. The sales staff involvement not only in selling activities but also in other non-selling activities such as meetings, learning the new products and services, training for compliance and environmental regulations, and networking activities that eventually will result in sales, need recognition. The base salary component of the proposed plan embraces and recognizes these efforts.
In addition to the base salary, I propose four types of bonuses to use as rewards for performance. Cascio (2006) contends that ???most experts agree that employees don??™t begin to notice incentive payouts unless they are at least 10 percent, with 15 to 20 percent more likely to evoke the desired response (p, 417).??? For that reason, I propose a team bonus program with a bonus pool equal to 10% of the team members??™ collective salaries and an individual bonus program with an eligible bonus amount of 10% of base salary. We spent a significant amount of time creating easy, efficient and comprehensive team evaluation and individual evaluation tools. We will use these tools to determine bonus payouts for both the team and the individual members. I suggest quarterly bonus payments to coincide with my quarterly individual evaluation with each of my team members. My proposed plan requires team participation in determining how the team bonus is allocated. Team member input will help mitigate the issue of top performers growing disenchanted from carrying ???free riders??? (Cascio, 2006, p. 444).
I also request that executive management looks at creating a profit sharing program for the entire company. Research indicates that profit sharing has a positive impact on productivity. In firms with profit sharing, productivity was three to five percent higher than in those companies without profit sharing plans (Cascio, 2006). The last bonus component of the compensation plan is the spot bonus. This is a discretionary bonus fund that I can access to reward my team or an individual as I deem appropriate. Spot bonus awards will be anywhere from $25 to $2500 in value.
The second part of my compensation plan includes indirect financial rewards or benefits. My recommendation is to review InterClean??™s benefits package and EnviroTech??™s package and harmonize upwards. According to Anonymous (2007) many mergers are not successful because of the lack of consideration of the benefits implications for the merged employees. Harmonizing upwards provides employees with the best of both benefits package. For example, if InterClean vacation benefits are 15 paid days off and EnviroTech had 18 paid days off per year, we need to give employees of the merged companies the benefit of 18 days. In addition, I propose InterClean adopt a very strong slate of Family-Friendly benefits; including telecommuting and childcare. Family-Friendly benefits help employees balance their work and family lives. According to a survey conducted by the Society for Human Resources Management, Family-Friendly benefits rated number one in benefits preferred by employees (Sands & Harper, 2007). I realize a quality benefits package is costly; however it is important to convey a message of caring and responsibility toward our employees. I agree with Anonymous (2007) assertion that employees ???will naturally be anxious (p. 5)??? about the merger and ???many will want no changes to their compensation and benefits unless there are improvements (p. 5).???
I must briefly mention the third component of my total rewards compensation package: nonfinancial benefits. Many times we forget or subordinate nonfinancial rewards to the primary compensation and benefits package. Cascio (2006) makes a good point by saying ???while money is obviously a powerful tool used to capture the minds and hearts of workers and to maximize their productivity, don??™t underestimate the impact of nonfinancial rewards (p. 418).??? The nonfinancial benefits important to my team include a supportive corporate culture, training and development opportunities, involvement in decision making, and recognition.
My organizational reward system provides substantial benefits to both the individual employee and the corporation. The primary benefits to the individual include:
??? Individuals are rewarded for efforts and results and share in the success of the corporation.
??? Providing Family-Friendly benefits increases employee productivity and his or her perception of organizational support (Sands & Harper, 2007).
??? Proposed system also rewards intangibles and hard to measure responsibilities.
Corporate benefits include the following: ??? The proposed variable pay system facilitates cost control. If business increases, more pay goes to the employees, if not the company is not locked in to the higher labor costs (Cascio, 2006).
??? ???Offering employees flexibility with how their work get done??? can conceivably lead to a higher return on assets and return on equity (Sands & Harper, 2007, p. 118)
??? The proposed compensation system can be used as a motivational tool and a means of reinforcing strategic goals and objectives (McColl-Kennedy, Kiel, and Dann, 1993). By approving my proposed organization reward system, InterClean will embrace the philosophy of pay-for-performance, and create a sales force motivated to achieve our strategic goals. I support Cascio??™s (2006) contention that ???compensation plans need to be tied to an organization??™s strategic mission (p. 420)??? and encourage InterClean to form a team to define measurable strategic goals and incorporate these goals into the final compensation and benefits program. It is important that our employees are not monetarily harmed during this merger. The training program, individual development plans, and appraisal system already developed will support and complement my proposed reward system. InterClean will be paying for performance and achieve dominance in the marketplace.References
Anonymous, . (2007,? March/April). Manage compensation and benefits during mergers. Strategic HR Review, 6(3), 5.Cascio, W. (2006). Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.McColl-Kennedy, J. R., Kiel, G. C., & Dann, S. J. (1993). Money or motivation: compensating the sales force. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 11(1), 13-19.Salary.com, Inc..? (2010).? Salary.com.? Retrieved from http://salary.com/Sands, J., & Harper, T. (2007,? Spring). Famliy-friendly benefits and organizational performance. Business Renaissance Quarterly, 2(1), 107-125.U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.? (2009).? Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 edition.? Retrieved from http://data.bls.gov/oco

History

Health Studies, David Obeng, 25th March, 2011.
Choose a current health topic and discuss how sociological and Psychological factors impact upon it.
The health topic to discuss today is Asthma. It is a chronic, severe and inflammatory breathing disorder affecting the small air tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs. People with asthma get irritable when they come into contact with an asthma trigger. The muscles of the walls of the airways tighten so as to narrow the airways and the airways lining becomes inflamed and starts to swell. Sometimes, sticky mucus (phlegm) builds up which further closes the airways. All these reactions narrow and irritate the airways making breathing difficult, leading to symptoms of asthma. Currently, 5.4 million people in the UK are receiving treatment for asthma. 1.1 million Children in the UK are currently being treated for asthma and there is at least one person with asthma in one in five households in the UK. Research shows that pregnancy and smoking significantly increases the risk of a child developing asthma and Children whose parents smoke are more likely to develop asthma. Although asthma cannot be cured yet, there are some excellent medicines available to help sufferers to control their asthma so that life is not too complicated. Steroids tablets, preventer inhalers and nebulisers are just a few examples of the available treatments. Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and tightness in the chest are the common symptoms of asthma.
Asthma UK is a charity dedicated to improve the health and well-being of the 5.4 million asthmatic people in the UK whose lives have been affected by asthma. The charity has a small, friendly and specialist nurses to provide independent, confidential advice and support to people with asthma, their families, friends and carers. They also provide advice and support to healthcare professionals through phones and emails. Asthma UK also funds research into all aspects of asthma from scientific studies into biology of the lungs to investigate the causes and to develop drugs and awards grants to local communities to identify and develop and promote good practice to improve the lives of people with asthma. The charity podcasts research updates, events information, advice and fund raising ideas online which is also downloadable. Asthma UK and the Government meet together regularly with members of Parliament, Ministers, Assemblies, Peers, Civil Servants and Dr Howard Stoate (MP,) to the all party parliamentary groups on asthma at Westminster. Asthma UK works with Parents with asthmatic Children and schools to make the Schools aware if Children are asthmatic and if there are any allergies.
Sociologically, there are great inequalities in health. The lower class you are in society the more likely you are to suffer from illness throughout your life. Lower class babies are more likely to be born prematurely with lower birth weights. They are more likely to go through ranges of health disadvantages such as obesity, respiratory problems, hearing and visual impairments, decaying and missing teeth and accidents. Whitehead said that Children living in deprived areas of Glasgow (Scotland) were nine times more likely to be admitted into a hospital than Children in non deprived districts (Whitehead, 1992). Social class differences continue in adulthood. The working class is more likely to suffer more acute (short- term) illness. The gap is greatest between classes for a whole range of chronic (long- term, debilitating), illnesses such as bronchitis, arthritis, rheumatism, hypertension and headaches. They have very little chance of surviving cancer. Additionally, they are mentally instable as they are at risk of developing depression, psychotic disorders and alcoholism. The working-class, are also, perceiving their health as poor. Health has a number of factors. Individual factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, environment and work affect health. Asthma is more prevalent in children because of their age and boys suffer more than girls. Asthma also kills 54% more women than 23% men in the US alone. Again, women with asthma will be hospitalised three times more often than men and have longer stays in hospitals. Asthma in women increases to 4.43% during pregnancy. British Minority Ethnic groups tend to be affected most than whites. A team of researchers at Edinburg University found that South Asian patients with asthma are three times more likely and black people two times as likely to be hospitalised for treatment. Researchers studied data on 22, 350 people with asthma from 1981-2002 and came up with this conclusion. A further studies on 13 other data showed 15 % blacks had asthma compared to 11 % among whites and 8 % of South Asian people. Marxists argue that the drug companies are medicating conditions to make money.
(Psychologically), the biological approach explains that asthma maybe hereditary. A person is more likely to suffer from asthma if his/her parents have it or any other members of the family have it. Children also learn from adults and other people around them. Children tend to copy the life style of those they admire, adore and look up to or want to be like. It could be their parents, peers, stars, actors, actresses with smoking behaviours. A number of Children and teenagers today are smoking for all sorts of reasons influenced by the media, peer pressure and also watching their parents smoke and there is strong statistical evidence on this. About 450 Children have taken up this new hobby to smoke everyday in the UK and one in every five fifteen year olds smoke in England (Smoking Trend, page1). Sigmund Freud used the Psychodynamic approach to explain why people maybe addicted to smoking by saying that Children pass through three stages of Psychosexual development, these are oral, anal and phallic stages commonly called Oedipal conflict at the oral stage, could be the reason why they smoke to ease oral fixation and smoking is the mind??™s answer to diverting the unresolved issue onto an object, which is tobacco in this case which also increases the causes of asthma.
Cognitively, people??™s belief, attitudes, and thoughts are making them prone to illnesses such as depression. Cognitive behaviour escalates damaging the Psychological states of depression and self-harming. Self-harmers usually have problems dealing with feelings like self hate, anger, depression, frustration, isolation and a feeling of disconnection with the outside world around them. The self-empowerment approach aims at promoting health to give power to individuals to make healthy choices. Individuals participate in learning techniques allowing them to examine their own values and beliefs and it is popular within health education for young people to develop their psychological resources to resist peer pressure, the so called ???say no??™ technique. The collective action aims at improving health by addressing socio -economic and environmental causes of health within the community. Individuals work collectively to make their environment better rather than for themselves like one German City consulted their local butchers to request low fat sausage to help fight obesity (Conner, 1994).
The Black Report (1980) was conducted by Sir Douglas Black to research into why there are inequalities in health. The then Labour Government of 1974-79 commissioned Sir Douglas Black to carry out this study. When the report was published in 1980, Mrs Thatcher suppressed it as she didn??™t like it. The Report was never printed only 260 photocopies were given out on a bank holiday afternoon in August. Mr Black recommended four areas of explanations. These are the Artefact Approach, Social Selection Approach, Cultural Approach and the Structural Approach. The Social Class inequalities only exist because of statistical methodology that researchers use. Researchers use extreme measures to differentiate between the lowest and the highest social groups which only look at a small group which has attracted some criticisms. This is the Artefact Approach explanation. The Social Selection Approach implies that if one is ill, then he/she will go down the social scale while the strong and healthy will experience upward mobility.
The 1946 British cohort discovered that seriously ill children were more likely to go downwardly mobile than healthy children (Wadsworth, 1987) but there are criticisms to it. Culturally the choices people make affect their health for instance, smoking, binge-drinking, dieting and exercising as observed by Mildred Blaxter (1990). The Achenson report also recommended policies to reduce inequalities in BME groups in considering planning and providing healthcare needs. The past and present governments blame poor health on individuals (victim-blaming). Sir Richard Peto in his recent study in the Lancet (2006) finalised that half of the death rates between top and bottom social classes is caused by smoking. While only 18% and 16% of professional men and women smoke, 33% and 30% of men and women who are un-skilled smoke. The Structural approach was very much welcomed. This approach highlights living standards and working environments as the main causes of working class poor health. For example accidents in the agricultural and construction fields amounted to 46% in 2006-7. Employees also get exposed to harmful chemicals, dangerous situations and long hours. The report concluded that the NHS remains a marked class gradient in standards of health despite committed to offering equal care for all in 30 years but the biggest problem is outside of its scope.
Sociological, Psychological, biological and environmental factors therefore impact upon asthma as the above discussion has shown. The Black Report as well as Margaret Whitehead and the Achenson Report all prove that Sociological, Psychological, biological and the environment, affects health particularly asthma.
References:
Health Studies Unit 2, Written and typed by David Bown, Third Edition c 2010.http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Asthma/Asthma_SignsAndSymptoms.html

Compensation Plan

Inter Clean Compensation Plan
Now that InterClean is embarking on a new compensation plan for the overall company I have formed a plan for my current team that I feel not only will be fair to my team, as well as boost sales but I feel this plan will also work for the company. This plan will allow the company to pay out less money to their employees when our sales are down while still encouraging employees to continue to try to hit their sales quota.
The compensation plan I feel will work best for our employees as well as to motivate them to continue to sell and to increase their sales is to use a non-recoverable draw system. A non recoverable draw system gives each member of the sales team a specific amount of money every two weeks based on their average sales over the past year. If the team member makes there sales for the month or goes over their goal they will get the rest of the commission earned during the next check. If they do not meet there goals for that pay period then they do not owe the company anything. If an employee does not meet there goals two periods in a row than they are up for review and there commission percent can be decreased. IF they do not meet there goal for a third time then they owe the company that money. This will keep the team members encouraged to always meet there goals. On the other hand if an employee meets their goals for 10 out of 12 months during the year they will be up for review to increase their commission percentage.
All commission percentages will be based on experience and position. Newer and lower sales employees will start out with 3% of their total sales before tax and delivery charges. As employees move up within the company their commission percentage will increase. Once an employee is a manger of a team they will receive a percentage of their team??™s total sales for the time period.
While this compensation plan is rewarding to employees as well as to the company it is also important to motivate our employees to continue to do their best. Along with this compensation plan we need to also add sales rewards into the package. The first rewards plan is to have team competitions within the company on a quarter bases. Which every team brings in the most commission for the quarter will receive 1% additional of their personal sales. Another incentive for the teams is to have a team lunch party for the team that sells the most of the particular product of the month. And the last motivating reward will be to have an employee of the month. This employee will be able to choose wither they would like a day off that does not interfere with their sales numbers or be treat to a special lunch with the manager of their choice. This lunch should be utilized to ask questions on how to feather improve their sales pitches or talk about other possible career moves within the company.
This compensation plan benefits the employee because it allows them in so many ways to control how much money they will be bring in. It also allows them to always be able to judge where their career is going and if they are in the right path for a promotion or raise. This plan also gives the team??™s incentives to do their best and to pull together as a team and help each other out. You are only as strong as your weakest link and this proves this to the teams. This plan also works out best for the company because the company puts out less money then they would if we were on a salary based pay scale and the company was not doing so well. This plan also helps the company to continue to encourage their employees to go out and do their best even in times where the company might be struggling. In a sales based company the employees and sales team are the heart of the company and they are the ones that bring in the revenue to the company.
Over all I feel this plan will work great for the employees and the company it will encourage the sales reps to continue to do their best even after a hard week. While allowing the company to put out less income before it comes in. I hope you will consider my plan for compensation not only for my team but for the company as a whole. I feel this plan will continue to take this company in the wonderful direction we are heading with all the wonder and exciting new additions and changes we have made recently.

History

In the early modern period the regions of Asia, Islamic Empires, Europe, Africa and the Americas all became connected by either one or more of them wanting to explore the new lands of the east, west, north and south. With the expansions of new lands came the opportunities for trade of new commodities and economic growth for these regions, which created connections with the nations and their people economically.
In the region of Asia, Japan and China was presented new opportunities, but they closely watched traders from Europe, the Asia region had a restrictive trade system with Europe. The regions of Asia had tea, sake, and silk, cotton and spice to offer as exports, commodities that areas of Europe, the Americas were all interested in, but Europeans did find it very difficult to keep an equitable system going, which ended up costing the Asia region failure.
The region of the Islamic Empires was able to ???prosper from the trade and the empire granted trade privileges to Europeans in exchange for naval support.??? (Bulliet, 438) With this region being open to the ???trade expansion, the Islamic region was able to develop commercial empires around the Indian Ocean.??? (Bulliet, 443) The Islamic Empire felt a hit to their economy due to the decline of overland trade, along with the high cost of the military and there was not much economic or political order in the different empires within the Islamic Empires, so many of its people ended up suffering.
Africa was a region that welcomed trade; trade gave them new opportunities for their exports and to receive imports cheaper. Africa??™s trade in slaves seemed be a profitable export for them, as did gold, ivory, sugar, and chocolate and forest products. Africa was one region that its imports had to be exactly what they wanted; they were not ones that could be taken advantage of. Africa was also one of the regions that Europeans had much less political and economic impact on; they were one region that also kept control of their land. Africa was a major stop on the trade route – The Americas, north, south and central offered a variety of commodities; from furs timber, tobacco in the north to silver mining, sugar product in central and South America. With growing the crops of tobacco, cotton and sugar the need for labor increased, which meant the need for an increase number of African slaves to handle the extremely hard, demanding labors. Europeans expansion to the many lands they came in contact with, appear to make them the major creator of the trading. When the Europeans crossed the Atlantic to the Americas they were able to create a route for trades. The route started in Europe to Africa, back to Europe then across the Atlantic to the Americas and back. Europeans

Compensation Plan

Akinlua Oludolapo MorayoUniversity of PhoenixWeek 5Individual AssignmentCareer Development PlanIV(Compensation)HRM531Instructor: Deborah Jones April 30, 2010.Compensation Plan
Compensation entails paying employees and enticing him/ her to continue working for your company. It is a critical facet of any managers job and goes beyond straight salary. It includes benefits, perks, stock options, etc. (John, 2010). In today??™s challenging and unpredictable economic market, companies are trying to redefine sales strategies, incentives, and pay compensation. This has become very important because of the way it affects the lifestyle of the employees in a company. To set up a compensation plan, the company will have to update its job descriptions, institute a job evaluation method, conduct pay surveys and develop a pay structure (Cascio, 2004). However, taking the company InterClean as a case study, there are certain criteria that will be focused on in creating a compensation plan for the employees that include: -compensation plan, pay system, total rewards package, and compensation plan benefits to the employees and the company. ??? Compensation plan for the new employment team:This plan will be classified into three stages. The first stage is building up the knowledge and skills of the employees with motivation in performing well on his/her job and contribute to the organizational performance. The second stage will be based on the employee??™s income. It will be in form of short and long term incentives. – For short term incentives: Periodic bonuses (Quarterly) when sales quota is reached. – For long term incentives: Annual bonuses when the company has a profitable year.The third stage will be based on Achievements and Career development awards. This will entail promotions for further career, medical benefits life insurance, annual payments and pension plan. ??? Pay system: A formal pay system entails rewarding an individual for his/her contributions to the success of the company, while making sure that your organization receives a fair return on its investment in employee pay. (Ryan, 2002). This pay system plan will be reviewed at least annually, and adjustment will be made where necessary. During this annual review, InterClean will consider the kind of employees qualified for the job, the turnover rate, and how the pay system will help achieve the objectives of the company. This pay system will work because of the following reasons: – Recruit – The pay ranges will provide competitive hiring rates for attracting high caliber employees. – Retain – The performance appraisal plan and pay increase feature will encourage performance plus growth and development within the company. – Motivation – The pay plan will make the employees more interested and enthusiastic about their present assignments and provide incentive to seek greater opportunity within the company. Having capable employees who are interested and enthusiastic will help win the battle for business survival and growth. ??? Three components of total rewards package a) Work-Life Balance Component:This component provides the employees with tremendous flexibility, enabling him/her to work effectively, and at indirect costs to the organization. It includes: Flexible scheduling, Telecommuting, Job sharing, Child-care and elder care, Fitness center, Tuition reimbursement, and Sabbaticals. b) Benefits Component:Benefits are the second component of the total rewards package. Over 80 percent of companies include employee benefits as a part of their total rewards package to attract, retain and motivate key talent. Benefits now constitute approximately 40.7 percent of wages and salaries based on U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Employee Benefits. (Cahaba, 2010). The following benefits provided to employees are: Medical benefits, Dental plan, Paid time off, Holidays, Short-term disability, Long-term disability, Social Security, Travel Accident Insurance, Retirement plans. c) Training, Career and Personal Growth Component :This will focus on training and development. As organizations struggle to ensure that they have the right number of people with the right skills in their organizations, they must continuously re- evaluate career growth and Training and Development (T&D) programs. At InterClean, the company will create opportunities for employees to learn and grow in order to develop requisite skills needed to survive and thrive in today??™s competitive environment. It will also add value to the organization??™s overall success. All career growth and development plans will be integrated into the organization??™s performance evaluation process to ensure appropriate alignment with the organization??™s strategic goals. ??? Compensation plan benefits to employees and the company:The compensation plan benefits are classified as: worker??™s compensation, disability insurance program (short and long-term), medical and dental coverage, sick leave, retirement plan (401K), unemployment insurances and social security. These benefit costs will be contributory, whereby the employees pay a small percentage of the cost with the company absorbing the bulk of the expense. One of the key benefits is the 401K plan. The company will contribute dollar for dollar up to 6% of the employee??™s contribution, while the employees have options to contribute up to 10% total per pay period. A reputable financial firm will manage the 401K plan and the employees will have the ability to diversify his/her funds based on the risk tolerance. Depending on age and personal goals, the employees have the opportunity to influence how his/her money grows. Also, the sales representatives will receive an increase in the percent of commission received as targets for new sales of the company. Award ceremony will take place to recognize the outstanding performers and monetary rewards, such as gift cards, flat screen television, $1000 check, will be provided annually.The compensation plan is very comprehensive. InterClean??™s goal is to provide for the employees that are very dedicated and motivated to reach the peak of his/her performance. This compensation plan will enable the employees manage the retirement plan according to his/her personal preferences, and benefits that includes; salary, commission and incentives necessary for each employees well being needs.ReferencesCascio, W. F. (2004). Indirect compensation: employee benefit plans. In Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits (pp. 462-503). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.John, F. R. (2010). Compensation Planning for your Employees. The New York Times Company. Retrieved April 30, 2010, from http//www. About.comRyan, A. (2002) Setting up pay system. Zero to one million. Retrieved April 30, 2010, from http//www.Zeromillion.com

History

The Governess was made to believe she had supreme Authority over Bly. “she will never trouble him-but never, never: neither appeal nor complain nor write about anything; only meet all questions herself, receive all moneys from his solicitor, take the whole thing over and let him alone” (The Turn of the Screw 28). The Governess became overwhelmed by the authority she gets and does not know what to do with it. She knows she wants to keep control over Bly, this desire led to her seeing ghosts and murdering miles.
Governesses were generally not considered to be “servants,” though in some families they were treated like servants” (Maria Edgeworth 123). The governess in this story was not treated like a servant. For the servants Bly is just a place of work, they have a life outside of Bly. For the governess Bly was a place of life; she had no place to go after Bly, and she had to make the very best of it. If her job description was to home train and give necessary instruction to the children, she will do this no matter what it took. She was on top of them teaching them what they had to learn, she even cross their personal space. Miles and Flora still had more power than she did, she serve to them.
“In the first weeks the days were long; they often, at their finest, gave me what I used to call my own hour” (The Turn of the Screw 38). It was during her “own hour” when she was free of the kids when the governess saw Quints ghost , it was as if he came out of her imagination to give her some entertainment in her life. Quints ghost came at a time when she was consumed by her work at Bly and when she needed time to breathe and to get away. By her lying about seeing Quints ghost the governess though she will be able to make Miles and Flora respect her and follow her orders, they will be too scare not to do what she wants, she is the only one that can see the ghost, and the only want that can save them from the ghost, so they have to follow her orders to be save.
“The position should generally be one of such suffering, that a woman who knows anything of the world would, if the choice were left to her, be anything in the world rather than be a governess” ( Anna James 130). The governess became consumed with reality. Her life was Bly and taking care of miles and Flora, but no matter what she did she will never be good enough for them or for the master. She started to see how her hard work was not paying off; things were not really getting better for her. “She hesitated-took a couple of days to consult and consider. But the salary offered much exceeded her modest, and on a second interview she faced the music, she engaged” (The Turn of the Screw 28).
The governess took the occupation because of necessity, but she ended giving her life up for this occupation this was the only way she can obtain means of subsistence. But she was not going to be really successful on till the authority she had turn in to something solid, like the kids looking at her as their mother and not a governess or the master coming back to marry her and making her the official ruler of the house. The only way she can get this solid authority over Bly was by making up the story of the ghost hunting the house.
“I was in these days literally able to find joy in the extraordinary flight of heroism the occasion demanded of me. I now saw that I had been asked for a service admirable and difficult; and there would be a greatness in letting it be seen-oh in the right quarter! It was an immense help to me- I confess I rather applaud myself as I look back” (The Turn of the Screw 53). “She made up the story of seeing a ghost because she wanted to be seen as a successful heroine” (Angelica Arias assignment #2). Bly became her life, a life of work and no freedom she didnt get anything out of this job. The servants at Bly didnt look at her as a person with authority and they didnt know how to react toward her. Miles and Flora still had more authority than she did; she was not able to make them do what she wanted them to do, like their mother could. And her master will never marry her because he is to involve in himself.
She wanted to be seen as a heroine who protected the kids from Quint the “ghost”. By helping the children, she will end the evil work of Quint and the children and everyone in the house will see her with respect and her work will not be her life. And her life will not be work. Everything went wrong and she scares Flora so much she got a really bad fever and she kills Miles. No matter what she did Miles still will have a relationship with Quint, and she will only be looked has just a servant who gave her life to do her job and got nothing in return.
“The exercise of labour [should be] the workers own life activity, manifestation of their own life, But they have to sell it to another person to obtain means of subsistence. Life activity is just a means to enable existence. Labour is not even reckoned as part of normal life, it is rather a sacrifice of their life” (Marx “Wage Labor and capital”). The occupation of governess is taken because of necessity if it was in a young ladys hand to choose her job she will not be a governess. As a governess your life is your job, other servants have their own life after they finish work, while the governess never stops working as if she sold her self to her employer.
The consequence of this type of job result in the wanting of the governess to become more powerful and more respected by others she wanted to be more than a servant she wanted to be a mother to the kids a wife to the master and a master to the servants. This will never happen because the kids see her like a servant they dont fallow her orders or care for her like a mother. The master will never marry her because for him she is not someone he will like to make his wife she is just a governess. Also the master is to into himself. In the end she is just a governess a worker how gave her life up for the people she work for.

Compensation Plan

Keeping in step with InterClean??™s new strategic direction, the new team compensation plan will incorporate creative planning to maximize:1. Building employee and team loyalty
2. Team motivation
3. Rewarding top performing team membersDescribe a new compensation plan for your employment team.
Sales managers face challenging choices in decision making every day. The multi functional team members will face these challenging dilemmas as InterClean embarks into a new market. By utilizing the job analysis for team member positions, organizational measurements, and individual measurements an organizational rewards plan has been set up for the new sales team. Rewards will combine indirect and direct compensation on an individual level as well as a collective team. In conjunction with already available company benefits (listed below) these additional benefits are available immediately upon joining the new sales team:Medical benefits
Life insurance
Dental plan
Vision plan
Tuition reimbursement
Wellness Program
Flex spending accounts
PTO- paid time off
Paid holidays
Worker??™s compensation
Long and Short-term disability
Supplementary Disability Insurance
Retirement plans
401k
Restricted Stock Options
Profit Sharing
Performance Bonus- based off of individual and team quarterly performance, can receive a maximum payout of 5% of base pay (weighting 20% individual + 30% team + 50% company revenue).
Sales Commission- monthly commission rate of 5% available if monthly attainment rate is met (attainment rate set by company objectives)
Travel/Meal reimbursement- meal reimbursement or travel per diem for business related meetings with potential clients.
Annual team appreciation luncheon- all expense paid luncheon for all team members. Members will be recognized for outstanding performance levels, teamwork efforts, and accomplishments.
Mobile phone comp- free use of company mobile phones to provide client service and other business related needs.
Laptop comp- use of company laptop and software for completing team projects and clientele inquiries.
Sales certification- free course training for improvement on sales techniques and SMEI certification.
Company car/ mileage imbursement- use of company vehicle during business hours or business related engagements.Explain why your pay system will work.
The contemporary pay system is in alignment with InterClean??™s overall company philosophy and objectives. This performance based pay system is aggressive enough to compete in today??™s competitive global market. A competitive compensation plan has the ability to attract strong recruits, retain experienced employees, and motivate employees to push performance levels. InterClean??™s new strategic direction focuses largely on customer contact, therefore our compensation plan will create strong incentives to train and obtain high levels of retail selling. As team members maintain their consistency in retail selling, so does their opportunity for reward. A first-rate recognition system complements the compensation plan to counteract thoughts of discouragement found in a competitive selling environment. Describe three components of a total rewards package that would motivate employees to reach peak performance.
Today the challenge is recruiting qualified, quality work candidates. Many companies are changing their benefits packages as an attraction or motivational strategy to compete for top quality work candidates. InterClean understands how potential hires consider benefits along with the job description. In today??™s completive market a well designed total rewards package could be the deciding factor for top quality recruits to select our company. A reward/compensation plan should reflect the needs of its employees as well as company objectives and financial abilities. The following components should be integrated into a rewards strategy:
Benefits
Work-life balance
Training and career opportunities
These core components are essential to the endurance of an organization??™s demanding business climate. Total rewards strategy coupled with a performance based philosophy provides opportunities for peak performers to increase their salary, improve career development through coaching and feedback in the performance evaluation process. Describe your compensation plans benefits to the individual as well as to the company.
All team members will receive a base salary according to their job position. The base salary will be complimented by a progressive incentive bonus plan and other rewards. The team??™s Sales director and Sr. managers will conduct quarterly reviews of compensation plan updates along with employee performances and company earning statements to keep our plan current and practical. The key to the success of the new multi functional sales team is to stay progressive and remain focused on the pay by performance philosophy and contemporary pay system. These advanced systems will provide incentive and opportunity for our sales team to expand its position in new and existing markets. InterClean will also enhance the ability to recognize the outstanding work of top performers, who contribute significantly to the overall success of the company.
The following listing are company and team benefits:
Medical benefits
Dental plan
Vision plan
Tuition reimbursement
Wellness Program
Flex accounts spending
PTO- paid time off
Paid holidays
Worker??™s compensation
Long and Short-term disability
Supplementary Disability Insurance
Retirement plans
401k
Restricted Stock Options
Profit Sharing
Performance Bonus- based off of individual and team quarterly performance, can receive a maximum payout of 5% of base pay (weighting 20% individual + 30% team + 50% company revenue).
Sales Commission- monthly commission rate of 5% available if monthly attainment rate is met (attainment rate set by company objectives)
Travel/Meal reimbursement- meal reimbursement or travel per diem for business related meetings with potential clients.
Annual team appreciation luncheon- all expense paid luncheon for all team members. Members will be recognized for outstanding performance levels, teamwork efforts, and accomplishments.
Mobile phone comp- free use of company mobile phones to provide client service and other business related needs.
Laptop comp- use of company laptop and software for completing team projects and clientele inquiries.
Sales certification- free course training for improvement on sales techniques and SMEI certification.
Company car/ mileage imbursement- use of company vehicle during business hours or business related engagements. Successful sales ???managers have to rely on common sense when it comes to management decisions. Employee compensation should be no different. If you want employees to be innovative??”reward them for new ideas. If you want employees to stay for a long time instead of training new employees every season??”offer bonuses or tie their wages to their tenure. If you need employees that show up on time, work hard, and can be trusted with the most challenging of tasks??”recruit those people; reward those people; promote those people. The future of your business could depend on it.??? Fogleman (2004)Cascio, W. (2006). Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Fogleman, Sarah L. (2004) Creative Compensation. Retrieved April 19, 2010 from nature.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7article/article33.htm

History

Since Datuk Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak became the sixth Prime Minister, he introduced a concept of solidarity, which is One Malaysia. It is not a new concept. In fact, he states that it is the goal of national unity envisioned by past prime ministers of this nation with a different approach and method according to the current condition of the world. In the other words, he updated the concept which is brought by the previous Malaysian leaders. The Prime Minister also states that the 1 Malaysia concepts is the guideline on how to achieve bangsa Malaysia, which translates into English as a ???Malaysian race???.? Nowadays, certain of Malaysian citizens sort their selves according by their races. Thus, it will lacerate the solidarity and create a gap between races. ?  Furthermore, some of our people are only socialize with their own race and they were unlikely to be friendly to the other races. Therefore, the government has implemented various programs in accordance with the ???One Malaysia??™ concept. For an example, the ministry of unity, culture, arts and heritage celebration held open house Malaysia with the theme of unity through the celebration. This theme is meant to complete the objectives of this open house was held. In addition, the purpose behind the organization of open houses in Malaysia every year is that people can understand the Malaysian culture and customs of various beyond one single race in this country.
Besides that, government has been trying to implement the core of unity as a culture and practice of all Malaysian. This unity is the core components that strengthen the spirit of unity among people of various races. Through the concept of ???One Malaysia??™, government has adopted the attitude of acceptance among people of various races, in which a nation to accept the uniqueness of other people patch for us to live together in mutual respect as citizens of a country. In addition, the government has also adopted the values of aspiration, which is the values that should exist in a dynamics and progressive society that will drive the country towards achieving developed nation status. The aspiration will help in creating a viable workforce and compete in the global environment and will help boost the country??™s economy to a more robust and stable. However, to implement the aspirations of the people, knowledge is very important for every citizen in Malaysia =, a country will progress and succeed when people have a higher knowledge. For example, the government has a campaign to need to all the people in Malaysia especially among children. In this campaign the government can implement a reading culture for all, thus to increase knowledge through reading.
Besides that, government implemented the ???one Malaysia??™ concept by the national service training program which is the conscripts are 17-year-old youth are selectively that drafted. The three-month program, which started in December 2003, began as way to encourage friendship between youths of certain ages from different races and ethnic groups. The objectives of the national service training program is to develop a young generation who are patriotic and with love and devotion for this country. Besides, this program can enhance unity among the multi-bother communities in the country. Therefore, it also coincides with the concept of Malaysia which applies the core of unity among one another.
The government also runs various programs including the Independence Day celebration every year and this can be applied more unity between the people of Malaysia. Moreover, through this program, the government can implement the spirit of patriotism for everyone. This program is welcomed by all people of Malaysia of all races. The program is also held each year to show a united people of Malaysia and this is consistent with the ???one Malaysia??™ concept that is being implemented by the government.
The One Malaysia Clinic programme aim is to provide quality healthcare to our citizens. We all know that the healthcare expenses are very expensive nowadays and the Government took the right initiatives on time in order to meet the urgent needs of the people.
Prime Minister Najib??™s Budget 2010 includes funding for 50 medical clinics for our citizens whether indigenous or not to provide a basic medical services for illness and injuries such as fever, cough, colds, wounds and cuts, diabetes, and hypertension. The RM 1 medical treatment is one of the methods that had been carried out for Malaysian citizen and will help a lot in terms of medical care due to its low fees where the non-Malaysian citizens are charged RM 15 for medical treatment. All these ???Klinik 1 Malaysia??? are set up in the urban areas to provide fast and cheap treatment for the poor citizen.
One of 1Malaysia aspect is about improving government efficiency. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), metrics and targets are used to measure the performances in private business, and National Key Result Areas (NKRAs). Najib says, “The government is committed to carrying out a transformation programme as its main agenda based on approaches and philosophy of 1Malaysia that is ???people first, performance now??™.???
A series of KPIs was introduced by the prime minister itself in order to measure and improve the efficiency and quality of government services as well as realizing the 1Malaysia concept. Najib said that KPIs were implemented to ensure ???the people??™s satisfaction whether they are satisfied with our service, whether we have solved their problems.???
The KPIs provide a mechanism for the evaluation of ministries and other government agencies including performance reviews carried out every six months. Specific KPIs has been established for every ministry to include that focus on policy outcomes over the traditional emphasis on inputs typically found in government performance assessments and planning. KPIs include detailed job descriptions and goals for ministers, deputy ministers, and some other senior government officials.
Najib has identified six major policy areas in which KPIs will play an especially important role in improving the effectiveness of the Malaysian government. These are known as National Key Result Areas (NKRAs). The NKRAs include crime prevention, reducing government corruption, increased access to quality education, improvements in the standard of living for low income groups, upgrades to rural infrastructure, and improvements in public transportation.
1) Reduce Crime Rate
* Sesebuah negara yang menuju ambang kemajuan seperti Malaysia perlu berada dalam keadaan aman dan damai. Individual countries are moving towards the threshold of development like Malaysia need to be in peace and harmony. Jauh dari segala bentuk? ? ?  ancaman dan jenayah. Far from all forms of threats and crimes. Walau bagaimanapun di mana-mana negara di dunia pencegahan jenayah secara total tidak mungkin dapat dicapai. However, in any country in the world in total crime prevention cannot be achieved. Pastinya ada sahaja dari masa ke semasa kejadian-kejadian yang sukar untuk dielakkan daripada ianya berlaku. Certainly there will from time to time the events are difficult to avoid than it happened.
* Oleh yang demikian, kerajaan memandang serius isu pencegahan jenayah dan meletakkan keutamaan pengurangan kadar jenayah sebagai salah satu NKRA di bawah Kementerian Dalam Negeri. Therefore, the governments crime prevention issues very seriously and place priority on reducing the crime rate as one NKRA under the Ministry of Home Affairs. Untuk itu, kerajaan telah mengenal pasti NKRA pengurangan jenayah dan di pecah bahagi kepada tiga bahagian iaitu: To that end, the government has identified the reduction of crime and the NKRA subdivision into three parts:
Jenayah jalanan Street crime
Jenayah jalanan diberi penekanan kerana didapati ia mendatangkan trauma dan ketakutan berpanjangan kepada ahli keluarga juga anggota masyarakat. Street crime is found to be emphasized because it brings trauma and fear of prolonged exposure to the family members are also members of the community. Apa yang dimaksudkan dengan jenayah jalanan termasuklah curi ragut, samun tanpa bersenjata dan samun berkawan tanpa bersenjata api. What is street crime, including snatch thefts, robberies and armed robberies without an armed robbery without a fire. Statistik menunjukkan jenayah kategori ini bukanlah enteng-entengan kerana ia merupakan 17% daripada keseluruhan indeks jenayah 2008. Statistics show that crimes of this category is not without consequences because it represents 17% of the total crime index of 2008. Hot Manakala hot spots kepada jenayah jenis ini telah dikenal pasti terutamanya di empat kawasan utama iaitu Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Pulau Pinang dan Johorhohohor spots of crime for this type have been identified mainly in four main areas, namely Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Penang and Johor. Didapati, negeri-negeri ini mencatat sebanyak 72% daripada jumlah keseluruhan jenayah jalanan pada tahun 2008. Found, these states recorded a total of 72% of the total number of street crimes in 2008. Oleh sebab itu kerajaan menetapkan sasaran pengurangan jenayah jalanan ini sebanyak 20% pada penghujung tahun 2010. Therefore, the government set a target of reducing street crime by 20% at the end of 2010.
Keselamatan awam Public Safety
Penumpuan akan diberikan dalam hal penambahbaikan persepsi rakyat terhadap keselamatan awam di mana pasukan-pasukan sukarela yang sedia ada terutamanya RELA akan dikemas kini dan diberi latihan secukupnya secara lebih teratur. Concentration will be given in terms of improving peoples perception of public safety in which volunteer teams available, especially REAL will be updated and given adequate training in a more orderly. Ini termasuklah penyeragaman uniform supaya mereka dapat dilibatkan bersama PDRM khususnya dalam usaha membanteras jenayah jalanan. This includes the standardization of uniforms so they can be involved with the police, particularly in the fight against street crime. Dalam usaha ini, balai-balai yang berkaitan akan dinaiktarafkan serta peralatan-peralatan yang diperlukan akan turut ditambah. In this effort, the relevant stations will be upgraded and the necessary equipment will also be added. Selain itu, langkah-langkah pengawalan dan pencegahan akan ditingkatkan lagi dengan menambah peralatan CCTV. In addition, control measures and prevention will be enhanced by adding CCTV equipment.
Peningkatan Prestasi Agensi Penguatkuasaan Performance Improvement Enforcement Agency
Untuk menaikkan prestasi agensi penguatkuasaan pula, Kementerian Dalam Negeri akan bekerjasama dengan Jabatan Peguam Negara dan Jabatan Perdana Menteri untuk mengkaji cara-cara mempercepatkan proses perundangan terhadap kes-kes tertangguh misalnya dengan mewujudkan tribunal atau mahkamah khas bagi jenayah jalanan. To boost the performance of regulatory agencies, the Ministry of Interior will cooperate with the Attorney General and the Prime Ministers Department to investigate ways of expediting the legal process of cases pending for example by creating a tribunal or court for street crimes.
2) Memerangi rasuah 2) Combating corruption
a) a) Kerajaan amat komited dalam usaha memerangi rasuah. The Government is committed to fighting corruption. Seperti mana yang kita semua tahu, gejala rasuah haruslah dibendung sebelum ianya terus membarah. As we all know, corruption must be curbed before it continues to fester. Badan antarabangsa iaitu Transparency International dalam Corruption Perception Index mereka, meletakkan Malaysia di tangga 47 pada tahun 2008 berbanding dengan kedudukan nombor 39 pada tahun 2004. International body of Transparency International in their Corruption Perception Index, ranked Malaysia ranked 47 in 2008 compared with the number 39 in 2004.
b) Oleh itu, untuk memastikan persepsi kedudukan dan ranking Malaysia bertambah pulih pada masa hadapan, kerajaan beriltizam mengemas kini polisi, prosedur dan penguatkuasaan yang berkaitan. b) Therefore, to ensure the perception of Malaysias position and ranking improves in the future, the government is committed to updating policies, procedures and relevant enforcement.
c) Sehubungan dengan itu, kerajaan telah pun mengambil keputusan bahawa semua perolehan kerajaan haruslah menggunakan tender terbuka atau pun tender terhad kecuali dalam kes-kes tertentu. c) Accordingly, the government has decided that all government procurement should be using an open tender or restricted tender, except in certain cases. Manakala dari segi peningkatan penguatkuasaan, kerajaan telah pun menaikkan taraf badan pencegah rasuah menjadi Suruhanjaya Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia (SPRM) dengan bidang kuasa dan perundangan yang lebih efektif. While in terms of increased enforcement, the government had upgraded anti-corruption body to Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC) with the jurisdiction and laws more effective.
3) Meluaskan Akses Kepada Pendidikan Berkualiti dan Berkemampuan 3) Expanding access to affordable and quality education
a) Seperti yang semua maklum, ilmu pengetahuan menjadi kandil penyuluh yang menerangi kegelitaan hidup di dunia. a) As all know, knowledge is like the light from the chandelier that illuminates life. Malah ilmu menjadi prasyarat kepada pembikinan mana-mana tamadun yang pernah terbina dan yang menentukan kelancangannya. In fact, knowledge becomes a prerequisite to the making of any civilization. Justeru, kerajaan akan terus mengiktiraf dan memberikan ruang kepada yang terbaik dan terbilang tanpa mengira latar keturunan mahupun taraf sosioekonomi. Thus, the government will continue to recognize and give space to the best and distinguished lineage, regardless of background or socioeconomic status.
b) Oleh itu, dalam bidang pendidikan, PM mahu memastikan anak-anak bangsa mendapat akses kepada pendidikan berkualiti dan berkemampuan. b) Therefore, in the areas of education, the PM wants to ensure children have access to race quality and affordable education. Mahu tidak mahu, generasi muda Malaysia perlu berilmu, mesti berfikiran kreatif, berinovatif, bercirikan nilai murni serta mampu bersaing di persada internasional yang penuh cabaran ini dari kemudahan yang diberikan. Like it or not, young Malaysians to be learned, must think of creative, innovative, feature values and be able to compete in the international arena, this challenging of the facilities provided.
c) Kerajaan akan memberikan keutamaan untuk menyediakan pendidikan yang terbaik bermula daripada peringkat asas iaitu peringkat prasekolah. c) The Government will give priority to providing the best education from foundation of the preschool. Untuk itu, pendidikan prasekolah akan dijadikan sebahagian daripada sistem pendidikan kebangsaan dalam aliran perdana. Therefore, pre-school education will be part of the national education system in the mainstream.
d) Adalah amat merugikan kerana terdapat kanak-kanak yang pergi ke sekolah tetapi masih tidak menguasai kemahiran membaca atau menulis apabila meninggalkan bangku pengajian. d) It is harmful because there are children who go to school but still have not mastered the skills to read or write when they leave the bench studies. Maka, bagi menangani kemelut ini, PM telah menetapkan supaya semua kanak-kanak normal yang bersekolah boleh menguasai kemahiran membaca, menulis dan mengira ketika melangkah ke Tahun 4 sekolah rendah sebelum penghujung 2012. So, to address this crisis, the PM has decided that all normal children who attend school are able to master skills in reading, writing and arithmetic when moving into Year 4 of primary school before the end of 2012. Kerajaan menyedari hanya 60% sahaja anak-anak Malaysia yang dapat akses pendidikan pra sekolah, jadi KPI menjelang 2012 berharap pencapaian ini dapat dinaikkan sekurang-kurangnya kepada 80%. The government only recognizes only 60% of Malaysian children to access preschool education, so by 2012 expect the achievement of KPIs can be increased to at least 80%.
e) Bersesuaian dengan konsep pencapaian diutamakan pula, kepimpinan sekolah di peringkat rendah dan menengah perlu menyedari mereka adalah peneraju tapak semaian modal insan nasional. e) In accordance with the concept of performance now, the school leadership in primary and secondary levels should be aware that they are leading a national nursery of human capital. Berkaitan itu, kerajaan dengan ini ingin menawarkan new deal atau satu Baiah baru kepada semua pengetua dan guru besar sekolah dengan janji ganjaran berasaskan pencapaian sekolah masing-masing. Connection, the government is to offer new deal or a new oath of allegiance to all school principals and teachers with the promise of rewards based on their school performance.
f) Selain itu , sebagai projek perintis, sebanyak 100 buah sekolah, terdiri daripada jenis harian biasa, sekolah bestari, kluster, trust school atau sekolah berpiagam dan sekolah berasrama penuh, akan dikenal pasti untuk diangkat menjadi Sekolah Berprestasi Tinggi. f) In addition, as a pilot, a total of 100 schools, ranging from ordinary types, smart schools, clusters, trust school or charter schools and boarding schools, will be identified to be appointed as High Performance Schools. Dengan ini, kerajaan akan menyediakan persekitaran pelajaran dan pembelajaran yang kondusif serta menggalakkan kerjasama antara sektor awam dan swasta bagi memacu lagi pencapaian pelajar. With this, the government will provide an environment conducive to teaching and learning and to promote cooperation between public and private sectors to accelerate the achievement of students. Semua rencana ini akan dilaksanakan dalam tempoh 3 tahun sebelum penamat 2012. All these plans will be implemented within 3 years before the end of 2012.
4) Meningkat Taraf Hidup Rakyat Yang Berpendapatan Rendah 4) Improved Living Standards of Low Income People
a) a) PM bertekad untuk membanteras kemiskinan tegar menjelang 31 Disember 2010 sesuai dengan matlamat RMK9. PM determined to eradicate hardcore poverty by December 31, 2010 in accordance with the objectives of the 9MP. Mengikut rekod sistem e-kasih, terdapat hampir 45,000 ketua isi rumah (KIR) miskin tegar di seluruh negara. According to records of e-love, there are nearly 45.000 heads of households (KIR) poor throughout the country. Daripada jumlah itu, lebih 11,000 telah disahkan statusnya dan telah pun mendapat bantuan Jabatan Kebajikan Masyarakat. Of the total, over 11,000 have already confirmed their status and get help Social Welfare Department. Manakala pengesahan status lebih 14,000 KIR di Sabah dan Sarawak sedang giat dijalankan oleh Kementerian Pembangunan Wanita, Keluarga dan Masyarakat dan dijangka selesai pada penghujung tahun 2010. While confirmation of the status of more than 14,000 KIR in Sabah and Sarawak are also underway by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and will be completed by the end of 2010.
b) Sehubungan ini juga, sebagai sebuah kerajaan yang prihatin, kerajaan sentiasa mendengar rintihan serta merasai denyut nadi rakyat dan tidak sekali-kali memandang mudah soal kebajikan rakyat. b) In this regard also, as a caring government, the government always listens to grievances and to feel the pulse of the people and never looked simple matter of peoples welfare. Kerajaan mahu setiap bantuan yang dijanjikan bukan sahaja sampai ke tangan rakyat tetapi tiba pada masa yang tepat. The government wants all the help that is promised not only to reach people, but arrived at the right time. Oleh itu, bermula Januari 2010 semua bantuan kebajikan untuk rakyat akan dibayar pada tiap 1 hari bulan bagi bulan yang berkenaan. Therefore, beginning January 2010 all public aid are to be paid for one day each month for that month.
c) Sememangnya, sumbangan kaum wanita kepada pembangunan negara tidak dapat dinafikan. c) Indeed, the contribution of women to national development cannot be denied. Malah, kaum hawa membentuk separuh dari penduduk Malaysia. In fact, women constitute half of the population. Bersesuaian itu kerajaan berhasrat untuk melatih dan melahirkan lebih ramai jumlah usahawan wanita. Appropriate that the government intends to train and create a larger number of women entrepreneurs. Sehingga Jun 2009 sahaja, seramai 717 wanita yang berpotensi untuk dibimbing menjadi usahawan dalam program Sahabat Amanah Ikhtiar telah dikenal pasti. As of June 2009 alone, a total of 717 women who have the potential to become entrepreneurs has been identified in the program of Friends of the Trust. Justeru, kerajaan dengan ini menetapkan matlamat untuk menambah lagi jumlah usahawan di kalangan wanita ini kepada seramai 4,000 orang menjelang tahun 2012 melalui program Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia. Thus, the government is setting goals to increase the number of women among entrepreneurs to 4,000 personnel by 2012.
5) Memperkasa Prasarana Luar Bandar dan Pedalaman 5) Strengthening Rural Development and Rural Infrastructure
a) a) Bersesuaian dengan semangat dan konteks ajaran al Quran Surah Al-Hashr ayat 7 bahawa, janganlah hendaknya harta dan kekayaan itu beredar di kalangan orang-orang berada sahaja bahkan sepatutnya ia melimpah ke seluruh negara. In accordance with the spirit and context of the teachings of the Quran Surah Al-Hashr verse 7 that, do not let the property and wealth is circulating among those who are alone and even should it spill over into the country. Maka, atas prinsip maslahah umum juga, tiada yang sepatutnya tercicir dari merasai mahsul kemakmuran. Thus, according to the principle of common maslahah , no one should feel left out of collections of prosperity.
b) Lantaran itu, pentadbiran kerajaan akan terus giat memperkasa infra luar bandar dan pedalaman. b) As such, government will continue to actively strengthen infrastructure in rural and remote areas. Menjelang tamatnya tahun 2010 dirancang sepanjang 750 km jalan luar bandar akan siap dibina di Sabah dan Sarawak. By the end of 2010 was designed along the 750 km of rural roads will be completed in Sabah and Sarawak. Jumlah ini akan ditambah lagi kepada 1,500km atau dua kali ganda daripada perancangan awal. This amount will be increased to 1,500 km or more than double the initial planning. Ini akan melibatkan peruntukan berjumlah RM4 bilion dan akan siap terlaksana sebelum penamat tahun 2012. This will involve an allocation of RM4 billion and be ready to be done before the end of 2012.
c) Jalan-jalan yang akan dibina terdiri daripada tiga (3) kategori iaitu jalan berturap (paved), jalan kerikil (gravel) dan jalan tanah yang akan memberi kemudahan perhubungan serta faedah kepada hampir 2 juta penduduk luar bandar di Sabah dan Sarawak. c) The roads to be constructed consisting of three (3) categories: paved roads (paved), gravel (gravel) and dirt roads that will provide communications facilities and benefits to nearly 2 million people in rural areas in Sabah and Sarawak.
d) Manakala di Semenanjung Malaysia pula, bagi tempoh yang sama, liputan rangkaian jalan luar bandar akan dipertingkatkan bagi memastikan kesemua rakyat tinggal paling jauh pun, 5km dari kemudahan jalan berturap. d) The Peninsular Malaysia, for the same period, the rural road network coverage will be enhanced to ensure that all people living even the most remote, 5km from the paved roads. Ini akan melibatkan peruntukan berjumlah RM1 bilion dan bermakna jumlah peruntukan yang diperlukan bagi penyediaan infrastruktur asas sehingga 2012 adalah sebanyak RM5 bilion. This will involve an allocation of RM1 billion and the mean number of provisions required for the provision of basic infrastructure up to 2012 is RM5 billion.
e) Pada masa ini, liputan bekalan air bersih di Sabah dan Sarawak masih belum memuaskan iaitu masing-masing di sekitar 62%. e) Currently, fresh water supply coverage in Sabah and Sarawak are still not satisfied that each of the approximately 62%. Justeru, Kerajaan telah menetapkan pada akhir RMK9 liputan bekalan air bagi kedua-dua negeri berkenaan akan dipertingkatkan kepada 70%. Therefore, the Government has set at the end of the 9MP coverage of water supply for the two states will be increased to 70%. Kerajaan begitu serius untuk menyediakan kemudahan bekalan air bersih kepada semua rakyat dalam tempoh terdekat ini. The government is so serious to provide potable water to all citizens in the near future. Jadinya, tindakan segera akan diambil untuk meningkatkan liputan bekalan air sehingga 90% di Sabah dan Sarawak pada penghujung tahun 2012. Therefore, immediate action will be taken to increase water supply coverage to 90% in Sabah and Sarawak by the end of 2012. Untuk tujuan ini sejumlah RM2 bilion diperuntukkan dan akan membawa kemudahan kepada 60,000 buah rumah. For this purpose a total of RM2 billion is allocated, and will bring convenience to 60.000 houses.
f) Selanjutnya, memandangkan pada masa ini liputan bekalan elektrik di Sabah dan Sarawak juga masih rendah iaitu masing-masing sekitar 80% berbanding 99% di Semenanjung, Kerajaan bermatlamat untuk meningkatkan liputan bekalan elektrik di kedua-dua negeri tersebut kepada 95% pada akhir tahun 2012. f) Furthermore, given the current electricity coverage in Sabah and Sarawak are still low, each about 80% compared to 99% in the peninsula, the Government aims to increase electricity coverage in both states to 95% at the end of the year 2012. Sejumlah RM3.9 bilion akan diperuntukkan untuk tujuan ini yang akan membawa nikmat kepada 80,000 buah rumah. A total of RM3.9 billion will be allocated for this purpose that will bring blessings to 80,000 homes. Kerajaan juga menyasarkan untuk memberi bekalan elektrik 24 jam kepada 7,000 rumah Orang Asli di Semenanjung pada akhir tahun 2012. The Government also aims to provide 24-hour electricity to the home 7.000 Aborigines in Peninsular at the end of 2012.
g) Kerajaan turut berhasrat untuk menyediakan kemudahan kediaman yang lebih selesa kepada golongan miskin dan sehubungan itu, Kerajaan akan membina dan membaik pulih sejumlah 50,000 unit rumah bagi keperluan golongan tersebut sehingga penghujung 2012 di seluruh Malaysia. g) The Government also aims to provide comfortable living quarters for the poor, and therefore the government will build and refurbish 50,000 units of housing for the needs of these groups until the end of 2012 all over Malaysia.
6) Menambah Baik Pengangkutan Awam 6) Improving Public Transport
a) Dalam era Malaysia melangkah sebagai sebuah negara maju, kerajaan berhasrat untuk menyediakan rangkaian sistem pengangkutan awam yang komprehensif bagi memenuhi keperluan rakyat. a) In an era of Malaysia as a country moving forward, the Government aims at providing a comprehensive public transportation system to meet the needs of the people. Kerajaan sedar bahawa usaha yang serius dan bersifat jangka panjang diperlukan bagi menjayakan matlamat ini. The Government recognizes that a serious and long term needs in order to achieve this goal.
b) Mengikut pada statistik Kementerian Pengangkutan, pada masa ini hanya 16% daripada penduduk Lembah Klang menggunakan sistem pengangkutan awam. b) According to the Ministry of Transport statistics, at present only 16% of the population of the Klang Valley public transport system. Jadi, Kerajaan menyasarkan bahawa peratus ini akan ditingkatkan lagi kepada 25% pada penghujung tahun 2012. So, the government targets that percentage will be increased again to 25% at the end of 2012. Namun, harus disedari, untuk meningkatkan peratus ini, ia melibatkan pelbagai pelaburan yang besar, mapan dan berjangka panjang. However, it should be noted, to increase this percentage, it involves a variety of large investment, sustainable and long term. Walau apa pun, buat langkah permulaannya, PM mengumumkan menjelang penghujung 2012, tambahan 35 set ???4-car-train??? akan beroperasi untuk laluan LRT Kelana Jaya. Notwithstanding, for the initial step, the PM announced by the end of 2012, an additional 35 sets of “4-car-train” will operate for the Kelana Jaya LRT line.
The concept of Malaysia will lead the aspiration to strengthen those relationships to ensure that the people of Malaysia to forge closer unity as the requirements of the National Fundamental principles.? Things that need to be created in the spirit of solidarity is the sense of mutual respect and trust between people.? People need to understand and practice that all actions must place the interests of the country.
All people should assume that they are a nation of Malaysia in which everything should be enjoyed in common.? Malaysia is a country where there are no people or people who would enjoy being marginalized from the development and defense of the government. These values are expected to bringing its people together with the thoughts and actions that lead to one goal, namely to the country.? Through the concept of one malaysia would not exist a feeling of dissatisfaction of any race because of all the Bangsa Malaysia and Malaysians, who have a sense of direction and goals to jointly develop the country.
For nation building a multiracial country like Malaysia is very important, especially in the era of globalization, which allows free and rapid flow of not only information, but also human capital and value systems, cultures and beliefs from various countries. The ability to build our nation depends on the shared values of integrity, ability, dedication and loyalty. Surely all the people of Malaysia have the fundamental principles underlying a Malaysia that is togetherness and sense of belonging for the success of these concepts.