Competion Essay

The Pros of Competition Outweigh the Cons 2
My argument on this paper is that competition is a good thing in the world. It has flaws or cons but those are outweighed by the pros. Competition does so many things today. Why are sports so entertaining to watch Two teams are competing to win. Why do wars occur They occur because nations are competing over a conflict. The world right now is having a war against terrorism led by the United States since the attacks on September 11, 2001. Businesses thrive today because of competition in a free market economy. Not in a controlled economy, such as communism. Goals are set to allow us to succeed. The motivation or desire to achieve those goals shows how competitive we are as individuals or how bad we want to win. The Revolutionary War was a competition that was won and it allows us to live in a free country today.
Keywords: Competition, goals, motivation 3
The Pros of Competition Outweigh the Cons
Competition occurs in just about every aspect of daily life today. Whether it is while playing sports or driving to work. Competition is the act of competing; rivalry for supremacy, a prize ( This is a good thing because competition is a motivational tool. Either you will succeed or fail. There are no gray areas or loop holes in it. The opportunity it creates for people in the world is the reason why it is so affective.
Some people believe that competition is a bad thing and there is too much of it in the world. Can competition create problems The answer is yes. Nothing is perfect is perfect. Everything has flaws. Competition can be bad in business, the economy/government, life, and war. In business it is cutthroat. Businesses are constantly competing for customers. They do this by making better products at cheaper prices. The best product at the cheapest price will get the most business. Workers are competing for jobs. Be Your Own Therapist (1995) says, ???Greed and layoffs are the two most frequently touted sins of competition.??? The Cold War broke out because of the competition between the Soviet Union and United States. The U.S. tried to stop the spread of communism after World War 2. Space was a major competition between the two nations. Who could get to space first Russia got there first but the U.S. put the first man on the moon. These reasons provide evidence on why competition is bad, but do these outweigh the good qualities of it
The Pros of Competition Outweigh the Cons 4
Terrorism is a major problem in the world today. It is costing people their lives. The world is in a competition against terrorism. This is good because the war against terror is trying to make the world a safer place. In The U.S. Attack on Afghanistan: Boaz (2005) states, ???Afghanistan is under attack because the Taliban regime harbored and supported the terrorists responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2001 (p. 19). Terrorist attacks are occurring too often. These attacks are becoming intolerable and the world is fighting back led by the United States.
The economy in the U.S. today is based on a free market. According to Wikipedia, ???A free market is a market in which there is no economic intervention and regulation by the state, except to enforce private contracts and ownership of property.??? A free market economy encourages the competition between businesses because that is what it is based on. This gives businesses many freedoms. The competition between businesses allows us, the consumers, to purchase products at a lower price. The whole purpose is to compete for the service of the consumer. This is good for the United States because this is how our economy has thrived in the past. Right now the economy is in bad shape but it can??™t always be good.
In the world today, goals need to be set. If you don??™t have goals, how can you achieve anything Goals are meant to help people succeed by accomplishing those goals. A goal is the result or achievement toward which effort is directed ( If you aren??™t achieving your goals, you??™re failing. Goals that have not been achieved are just dreams. Motivation is needed to obtain goals. Everyone needs to have goals and have the mindset that you will obtain them.
The Pros of Competition Outweigh the Cons 5
Competition occurs in many different production markets, whether it is with cars, food, or clothes. If two companies make a similar product and one is cheaper, which one will consumers buy The typical consumer will be the cheaper or less expensive one because they don??™t want to pay more money. Companies compete in a dog-eat-dog manner. It is Social Darwinism. It is the survival of the fittest in the business world. Companies have to make money or else they will be put out of business by other companies or go bankrupt. In Does Competition Mean War Benjamin Tucker (1998) believes, ???Universal and unrestricted competition means the most perfect peace and truest cooperation.??? Competition will never be a perfect peace. We, the individuals, thrive on competitiveness. The competitiveness between businesses helps out us, the buyer. It helps us out because we are continuing to get a better product at a cheaper price. Competition is good but I don??™t know about peaceful. It is far from it.
Think about sports. What are those teams doing on a daily basis They are competing to win. No one wants to lose. Everyone wants to win. The will to win motivates the athletes to try their hardest. It is the perfect motivation for an athlete or a team. Players and teams compete to win championships. The thing is there is only one winner and everyone is competing for that top spot. Look at the Los Angeles Lakers for example. They have won back to back championships in the NBA. This is because they are motivated to be the best basketball there is. Their desire to win championships makes them so good but without their competiveness for it they wouldn??™t be doing as good as they are.The Pros of Competition Outweigh the Cons 6
Motivation is a key part to being competitive. If you don??™t have a motive you are not going to do it. Motivation is an incentive. If someone is motivated to win an award that is there incentive. They set forth a goal and accomplished it to gain an award. The desire to want something is a big motivation. Kobe Bryant desires to win championships and that??™s why he has five. Some people are more competitive then others. That is going to happen but it will come down to who wants it more. That desire to have it.
Why do we live in a free country today The 13 colonies competed for freedom against the British. This freedom that was gained during the Revolutionary War came at the cost of people??™s lives. It was for what they believed to be a good cause. They stood up against a giant empire in the world and won. Americans stood up against being treated unfairly and broke away and started their own country. Being treated unfairly motivated them to try their best and become a free country. Goals were set and eventually achieved through hard fought battles in strenuous conditions, often being outnumbered. Americans had a stronger desire because they knew what they were fighting for. The British were just trying to stop rebelling colonies. Freedom is great motivation and the Revolutionary War proved so. I am so grateful for what they did hundreds of years ago that allows me to live in a free country today. Some of my freedoms are speech and religion which are in the constitution established. If it wasn??™t for competition, it wouldn??™t have happened.The Pros of Competition Outweigh the Cons 7
The opportunities and motivation created by competition make it a good thing. Competition in sports is great. It??™s what makes it entertaining to watch. There is a war against terrorism going on today. Competition will hopefully end it all. A free market economy allows people freedom and everyone isn??™t the same. In communism people are treated the same when working. What??™s wrong with that The workers are not going to be motivated to better because you can??™t set goals or gain incentives. Goals cannot be achieved without competition. Competition??™s flaws, I believe, are outweighed by the good things competition does.The Pros of Competition Outweigh the Cons 8
Reference Page
Boaz, John. (2005)
The U.S. Attack on Afghanistan
Kohn, Alfie. (1987)
Be Your Own Therapist. (1995)
Competition: Good or Bad
Tucker, Benjamin. (1988)
Does Competition Mean War
Competition, Motivation, Goals
Free Market

Hitchhikers Guide

THE HITCHHIKER??™S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY By: Douglas Adams is a book of fiction that focuses on the life of human named Arthur Dent. In this book Arthur Dent finds out that there is life in space. While Arthur Dent may seem a key character in the book, without Ford Perfect, Arthur Dent would not even be alive. Ford Perfect is first introduced in the book in the very beginning. The readers first learn that Ford Perfect is not of human descent. As reader??™s progress through the book, Ford Perfect??™s purpose becomes clear. Ford Perfect??™s purpose is to find information to update THE HITCHHIKER??™S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY. Ford Perfect even said ???THE HITCHHIKER??™S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY. It??™s a sort of electronic book. It tells you everything you need to know about anything. That??™s its job??? (p. 52) While gathering information on the planet earth, Ford Perfect became stuck on this planet not being able to hitch a ride for fifteen years. During his time on earth, Ford Perfect met Arthur Dent. Then when the earth was seconds from becoming destroyed, Ford Perfect and Arthur Dent hitched a ride, which set of a multitude of events. This led to Ford Perfect and Arthur Dent on an adventure with three other main characters known as Zaphod Beeblebrox, who is Ford Perfect??™s ???semi-half brother??? whom he ???shares three of the same mothers???, Trillian, an earth girl that Arthur Dent met at a fancy dress party, and Marvin, an extremely depressed robot, to a legendary planet known as Magrathea. Along the way, Ford Perfect continued to gather information while having a great adventure and finding things that haven??™t been seen for millions of years. Ford Perfect did not see this as a great adventure at first. At every instance, Ford Perfect denied that the planet Zaphod Beeblebrox thought was the legendary Magrathea was just some desolate planet. Ford Perfect even said ???Magrathea is a myth, a fairy story.??? (p. 117) In the end, the supposedly desolate planet was in fact the legendary planet of Magrathea. From then on crazy things happen, rockets get shot at their spaceship, Arthur Dent learns his planet was built due to the funding of mice and Arthur Dent almost loses his brain literally. In the end, including Ford Perfect, everybody had a great adventure and they go on to make many more.

Competitive Advantage of Silver Bird Group Berhad

1. Introduction
For a company to succeed in the business environment, business strategy plays a vital role along the business operations. In discussing organisations??™ business strategy, we first deal with competitive advantage in the way the term first used by Michael Porter in the 1980s (Cowe, Mackeron, Moffat and Douglas, 2011). Competitive advantage defined as an advantage that a firm possesses over its competitors, it helps to generate better profits or margins and / or retain more customers than its competitor. Competitive advantages can establish by cost structure, production / operation process, product offerings, supply chain management and etc (Investopedia, 2012)
Michael Porter had indentified two basic types of competitive advantages, which is cost advantage and differentiation advantage. Cost advantage apply when a firm has the ability to produce a good or service at a lower cost than its rivals, this gives the firm the ability sell its goods or services at a lower price than its rivals or to generate a larger profits or margins on sales. A differentiation advantage is created when a firm provides products or services differ from its competitors and customers see the products better than a competitor??™s products. Meanwhile, company??™s operating environment and internal capabilities play a major role in building up the competitive advantages. A resource-based view highlights that a company creates competitive advantage by utilizing its resources and capabilities that ultimately results in greater value creation.
To enhance the understanding on competitive advantage, a Malaysia listed company, Silver Bird Group Berhad (SILVER), would be used as a case study to explain how the company??™s operating environment and internal capabilities advantage may or may not contribute to the attainment of competitive advantage. The company??™s strengths and weaknesses will be identified throughout the case study and we will discuss how competitive advantages help to sustain and enhance the company strengths. Lastly, recommendations will also be given on how to improve the company??™s weaknesses by building and strengthen their competitive advantages. Advantage is a better soldier than rashness. Thus, competitive advantage plays a crucial role in the company in order to survive and outperform in business environment.
2. Company??™s Profile
Silver Bird Group Berhad (SILVER) is a listed company dominant in bakery and confectionary manufacturing. SILVER was founded by Mr. Tan Chin Suan in 1960 as a Standard Confectionery. The group is made up by a few subsidiary companies whereby each specialized in a key bakery-related business, including Silver Bird International Sdn. Bhd., Standard Confectionery Sdn. Bhd., and Stanson Group Sdn. Bhd. The principal activities of the subsidiary companies include manufacturing of daily fresh and shelf stable bakery goods; sales and distribution of telecommunication products and bakery goods; marketing and distribution agent for financial related products (Silver Bird, .
SILVER has a wide range of daily-fresh and shelf-stable products, including sandwich bread, buns, swiss rolls, cakes, spreads, cereals, baking needs, snacks and energy drinks. Among these products range, SILVER is popular with its High 5 bakery goods in Malaysia. SILVER??™s products quality is recognized by Product Excellence Award and Food Safety Management System Standard. The company has also been awarded a contract to supply mooncakes and fruitcakes to Amway in 1990 and bakery products to Malaysia Airline System in 1992. However, in 2006, there was news regarding to the hygiene issues in Hi-5 Bread factory. The factory was raided for being dirty, employing illegal worker and using ingredients without ???halal??™ certificate. SILVER??™s image was badly affected with the release of the news (The Star, 2006).
The company??™s vision is to be one of the nation??™s leading players in the customer food market. And the new mission for the year is to place the ???High 5??™ bread as the No.1 bread of choice for Malaysians, the Group has recognized the need to reach out to Malaysians and to provide them with choices. The Group is also taking fresh new perspective into its existing distribution network and will be launching its new wheat germ bread to add to its existing range of bread. Meanwhile, the group will continue to improve on efficiencies in its operations, with more efforts put in the area of cost control without sacrificing quality and efficiency, to pursue better marketing and promotion activities, to strengthen brand equity, increase distribution and logistics channels in order to achieve greater results (Dato??™s Dr Gan Khuan Poh, 2011). 1. Current Issues
Recently SILVER was categorized as a Practice Note 17 (PN17) company when it was triggered to be suspicious and default in payment by its major subsidiaries in the audited accounts year ended Oct 31, 2011. The financial irregularities estimated to be around RM111.5mil. A ???forensic accountants???, PKF Advisory Sdb. Bhd, has been appointed to conduct a forensic review to ascertain the financial position of SILVER. Three of its key executives have been suspended from work during the investigation. SILVER wholly owned subsidiaries – Standard Confectionery Sdn Bhd,? Stanson Marketing Sdn Bhd and? Stanton Bakeries Sdn Bhd, revealed were in default of banking facilities repayments, amounting approximately to RM5.37bil. The company is now working on various options to regularize the default with the lenders. Meanwhile, SILVER was required to submit a regularization plan on its business direction and policy to Bursa Malaysia within 12 months from the date it was categorized as a PN17 company, or face delisting. (FPLC, 2012)3. Environmental Analysis
All organisations are linked to their environment in some way or the other, including SILVER. This makes organisation dependent on their environment. Notwithstanding, problems do not arise because organisations are dependent on their environment, but because the environment is usually not dependable. Given this, an organisation will only continue to survive and succeed as long as it makes every attempt to understand and adapt to its environment.
The environment may be thought of as all the factors outside of management control which can affect the performance of the business and the success of its strategies. With the adoption of PEST analysis and the Porter Five Forces Model, it would assist SILVER to analyse the general and industrial environment which can influence their business activities in uncertain, dynamic, hostile or complex environments.
1. Analysis to General Environment ??“ PEST Analysis
The general environment comprises broad nonspecific elements of the organisation??™s surroundings that might affect the activities and operations of the organisation. The PEST framework is used to categorize general environment influences into four headings that can be used to assess the external factors that might impact on the SILVER??™s development in future. More specifically, the PEST analysis composes of the following elements or factors:
1. Political Factors
These are political or legal factors affecting the organisation, such as legislation or government policy, stability of the government, government attitudes to competition and so on. The political factors are vary between countries and often limit companies what can and cannot do. Generally, political factors have an influential impact on SILVER. Legal factors such as tax law (corporate tax, sales tax, and income tax), employment law, health and safety law and company law which govern directors and their duties, reporting requirements, takeover proceedings and shareholders rights can give an enormous effect to the Group if it is not compliance with these legislations. SILVER is mainly involved in bakery and confectionary manufacturing; this industry is strongly compliance with health and safety regulation. Environment of factory, hygiene of production equipments and workers, and health and safety training to workers are essential to ensure the compliance of these rules. Besides, SILVER needs to fulfill the HALAL regulations set by Malaysian??™s government. Breakage of the Halal regulations could bring the company into court issue. SILVER will only confer Halal status when the company passes the examination processes which cover the aspects of preparation, processing, handling, storage, transportation, cleaning, disinfection, and management practices (Halal Foods, 2005). As a responsible company, SILVER needs compliance with the (Malaysia Employment Act, 1995), basic employees??™ benefits must be fulfilled. Employment of illegal workers is strictly restricted by government. Violation in any of these political factors could involve the company into big trouble.
2. Economic Factors
Economic factors include the overall level of growth, the business cycle, official monetary and fiscal policy, exchange rates and inflation. The economic environment is an important influence at local and national level. There are some factors that SILVER must attend to. First is the overall growth or fall in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Malaysia. This factor would influent demand for packaged bakery goods. For instance, low GDP shown people tend to buy more packaged bread compare to artisanal bread due to lower price for packaged bread. The disposable income level would shape the trend of what customer would buy. SILVER could diversify its product range based on the current GDP. SILVER may come out some premium products when the disposable income level is rising. While the GDP goes down, the company could probably introduce value pack / promo pack in order to cater customers??™ needs. On the other hand, rising trend of commodities prices for sugar and wheat flour have caused higher production costs to SILVER. Thus, to control the costing issue, SILVER should consistently review its operation processes and those unnecessarily activity should cut down in order to save cost. However, this should not affect the quality of the final goods. Others economic factors which can affect the achievement of the company include inflation, interest rates, tax levels, and government spending. These factors would mainly affect SILVER in term of spending more and less for their business activities.
3. Social Factors
These are social, cultural or demographic factors (i.e. population shifts, age profile etc) and refer to attitudes, value and beliefs held by people; also change in lifestyles, education and health and so on. Social change involves changes in the nature, attitudes and habits of society. Social changes are continually happening, and trends can be identified, which may or may not be relevant to a business. Baked goods industry in Malaysia is growing due to the pace of life is picking up in Malaysia and people have less time to prepare breakfast, packaged baked goods would be the best choice for daily consumption. Besides, manufacturers have constantly launched new products to cater the mass market. This helps to increase market for packaged baked goods. In addition, nowadays customers have become more health conscious, the emergence of healthier variants within bakery goods such as wholemeal, high-fibre and high calcium bread helped to retain customer. SILVER??™s major competitor, Gardenia, has introduced a few variants of healthy bread, including Gardenia Enriched White Bread and Gardenia High Calcium Milk Bread, which help to prevent osteoporosis; Gardenia High Fibre White Breach which is fortified with the soluble fibre, inulin, as well as Omega 3 and Omega 6.There is also trend showing in (Euromonitor International, 2010) that share of wholemeal bread has been on the rise slowly from 23% to 26% since 2005.Therefore, for SILVER to compete in the market, it should also develop product range which focus on healthy prospect.
3.1.4 Technological Factors
Technological factors have implications for economic growth overall, and offer opportunities and threats to many businesses. Technological change is rapid, and SILVER must adapt itself to it. Technological change can affect the activities of SILVER by the way in which the business operations are carrying out. With rapid development in Internet and Intranet technologies, packaged solutions like MS, Point of Sale (POS) and enterprise resource planning software, and supporting telecommunication services such as broadband Internet access and logistics technology has become easier and more cost effective than ever before. SILVER may use software to control its inventory level or it may utilize technology to perform analysis work for its company. Social media like Facebook could also be a way to market its brand and products. Other than that, IT helped in the reduction of management layers between the senior managers and the workforce. Advancement of technology can bring both benefits and costs to the Group. Whether it is benefit or cost it depends on how SILVER utilize the IT for their business operations. Technology factors could be a powerful tool to succeed the business.
3.2 Analysis to Industrial Environment ??“ Porter??™s Five Forces Model
Thus, corporate strategy is the essential tool in creating competitive advantage, whereby this strategy could be affected by internal and external factors. To analyse competition in the industry, Porter??™s Five Forces Model can be used. The five forces which has established by Michael Porter, could be used to appraise business environment. These forces are illustrated as below.
3.2.1 Threat of New Entrants
Profitability of SILVER will be affected if there is new entrant into the same industry. The most common strategy that adopted by new entry is lowering its production price or create differentiation in order to attract customer. The threat of new entrants to SILVER is low as high investment and expertise are needed in order to open a bakery manufacturing factory. However, it does not mean SILVER does not need to alert with the potential new entrants. To create barriers for new entry, SILVER has differentiated itself by providing variety types of baked goods to its consumers. Recently SILVER had introduced custard bun which is totally new in the market. To create higher threats of new entry, SILVER needs to be creative and innovation in product development while maintaining its quality. The major players in bakery manufacturing industry are Gardenia, SILVER and Massimo. Massimo emerged in the market in 2011 as an ???Italian??? brand. Massimo create differentiation by creating itself an Italian brand image, the packaging of the bakery goods are same colours found on Italian flag, which is green, white and red. This helps to create a premium brand image for Massimo and consumers presume the brand as ???Italian??? bread. In the coming year Massimo could have the potential to exceed SILVER and Gardenia.
3.2.2 Threat of Substitute Products
Substitute products are the products that providing the same need to consumer in different form of production. The profitability of SILVER would be affected by substitute products and services due to relative price and performance of substitute products. Due to their convenience and availability, bakery goods have become more popular as breakfast or snacks among Malaysians. In addition, Malaysians have moving toward to healthier lifestyle. Substitute for bakery goods shall be convenient, variety of choices, and healthy such cakes, pastries, breakfast cereal, oat, yogurt, and etc. If the relative price for the substitute is lower and providing better or equal needs, consumer will for sure switch to substitute and therefore result to sales drop in SILVER. Rising of disposable income has increased consumers??™ demand on better lifestyle. Consumers would go for artisanal pastries and cake as an indulgence. Although packaged bakery goods are the main focus in SILVER, the company also offers chilled cake, chilled pastries and cereal which are also substitutes for bakery goods. SILVER might consider focusing more on these ???substitutes??? in the market.3.2.3 Bargaining Power of Buyers
The bargaining power of buyers to bakery goods is relative low as these are the primary necessity to consumers. In reality, consumers would like to trade around to seek for lower price or improvement of products and services. Due to the healthier and fast pace lifestyle in Malaysia, it led to more consumers to have bread for breakfast instead of local delicious such as nasi lemak and rote canai which perceive as ???fatty??? foods. Consumers were unable to avoid consuming bread and therefore they responded by accepting the higher price of bread or trading down to cheaper alternatives such as economic or promotion pack (Euuromonitor, 2011). However, it is easier for consumers to switch brand for their bakery goods as the price for bakery goods is sensitive to consumers. For example, both High5 and Gardenia white sandwich bread are selling at RM2.30. Yet, the High 5 bread offers additional 3 pieces in the pack. Consumers might switch their brand from Gardenia to High 5 with the addition pieces of bread since both are selling at the same price. However, it also depends on the consumers??™ brand loyalty to the bakery goods. On the other hand, bargaining power of buyers is slightly lower for packaged baked goods due to its convenience packaging and it is easy to get. For example, somebody in a rush may grab a pack of High 5 bun from the convenience shop without consider the too much on the price for the bun.
3.2.4 Bargaining Power of Suppliers
Undeniable, suppliers are the core to an organisation. Company??™s performance would be affected because suppliers??™ main power is to raise their prices to the industry and hence take over some of its profit for themselves. Thus, company should not depend solely on one supplier unless the supplier has proprietary product differences. For SILVER, it is slightly different as the price increase for the raw materials are mainly due to the fluctuation of commodities price such as wheat, flour and sugar. Apart from that, commodities price is control by Malaysia Government and supplies of these raw materials could not simply increase the price to raise their own profit. This gives protection to SILVER to secure its raw materials price. The only thing that SILVER needs to emphasize on the supplier is the raw materials quality. It doesn??™t matter for SILVER to stick with one supplier as long it can provide SILVER good quality of raw materials with good service level. For packaging part, in order to achieve optimum result, SILVER should not rely on one supplier in supplying its packaging material. Suppliers who supply packaging materials do not have proprietary product differences. Thus, SILVER could have few supplies for packaging materials to prevent stop supply resulted by factory breakdown, price increase issues and so on.3.2.5 Intensity of Competitive Rivalry
Every type of business is having its competitors. Numerous rivals in industry will cause corporate suffer lose or even collapse if it could not sustaining from the price war. Besides that, low differentiation or switching costs is encouraging customer approach to competitors too. Rivals create higher level of threats to SILVER. For instance, Gardenia is the largest player in bakery manufacturing industry in Malaysia with 21% value share during 2010, follow by Stanson Bakeries Shd Bhd (SILVER??™s subsidiary) with an 11% value share. Both Gardenia and High 5 are widely available and perceived as being excellent source of balanced nutrition. Value share of Gardenia is higher than High 5 in the market. This could be due to the strong brand name and customer loyalty build by Gardenia since establishment. Gardenia also launched its new Breakthru bread in the end of 2010 and this bread is claimed to reduce cholesterol levels as the bread contains beta-glucan. The launch of this healthy bread helps to capture more health conscious consumers in the market. Besides that, SILVER??™s profitability could be diminished by increasing of artisanal bakery shop and in-store bakeries present in supermarkets / hypermarkets like Jusco, Giant, Tesco and Carrefour. Both artisanal and in-store bakeries continue to grow in the market due to the freshness and wide variety of choices. Furthermore, in-store bakeries offer convenience to shoppers while doing their grocery shopping. In depth, in-store bakeries also offer promotion to shopper whereby the prices are lower than branded packaged baked goods. Therefore, it can conclude that threat of competitive rivalry is high to SILVER due to the existing of strong competitors.
4. SWOT Analysis
SWOT analysis is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It is useful technique to understand the Silver Bird??™s strengths and weaknesses and to identify both the opportunities open to the company and the threats the company face. Strengths and weaknesses are within the company??™s control. However, opportunities and threats are factors that beyond the company??™s control and it could affect the performance of the business and the success of the company??™s strategies. For a company??™s strategy to be well-conceived, it must be matched to its resource strengths and weaknesses, to capture the best market opportunities and manage / eliminate threats which could place the company at risk. The SWOT Analysis for SILVER is summarized as below:|SWOT Analysis for SILVER |
|Strengths |Weaknesses |
|Strong Brand Name (Well known Hi5 Bread) |A week balance sheet, burdened with too much debt |
|Wide geographical coverage |Weak company??™s reputation |
|Core competencies in bakery manufacturing |Lack of internal trainings |
|Diversification of products range | |
|Product innovation capabilities | |
|Strong marketing | |
|Opportunities |Threats |
|Sharply rising demand for the industry??™s product |Likely entry of potent new competitors |
|Serving additional customer groups or market segments |Increasing intensity of competition among industry |
|Expanding the company??™s product like to meet a broader range of |Volatility of commodities price |
|customer needs | |Table 1 (Full explanations refer to Appendix A)5. Financial Rations & Interpretations
Ratios analysis are mainly categorized into 4 type according to the financial aspect of the business which the ratio measures. It includes leverage ratios which show how heavily the company is in debt, liquidity ratio which is used to measure a firm??™s ability to meet its current obligations as they come due; efficiency or turnover ratios measure how effectively a firm is managing its assets; and profitability ratios show the combined effects of liquidity, asset management, and debt on operating results, and thus give management an indication of what investors think of the company??™s past performance and future prospects. The financial ratios for SILVER are as below:1. Profitability Ratios
|Profitability Ratios |?  |?  |
|Gross Profit Margin |36.94% |45.41% |
|Operating Profit Margin / Return on Sales |5.87% |5.47% |
|Net Profit Margin / Net Return on Sales |2.12% |1.91% |
|Return on Total Assets |2.17% |2.53% |
|Return on Stockholders??™ Equity |2.31% |1.84% |
Table 2.1 (Calculation refer to Appendix B)
Gross profit margin for SILVER is declining from 45.41% to 36.94% in 2011. This show the revenues available to cover the operating expenses is dropping and SILVER yield lesser profit compare to year 2010. Although the revenue generated in 2011 is higher than 2010, the increase of the cost of goods sold is higher than the growth of revenue generated in 2011 and this resulted a decline in gross profit margin. The operating profit margin in 2011 remain at 5% as per in 2010, this indicate the profitability of current operations without regard to interest charges and income taxes have no improvement in 2011. The net profit margin shows a slight increase from 1.91% to 2.12% in 2011. The slight increase trend in net profit margin show SILVER actually has higher after-tax profits per dollar of sales compare to year 2010. Return of total assets helps to measure return on total investment in the enterprise. The return of total assets for SILVER has slightly decreased from 2.53% to 2.17% in 2011. The return on total investment for SILVER means to decline as well. The return stockholders are earning on their investment in the enterprise could be analyse by return on stockholder??™s equity ratio. A return in the 12 to 15% range is average and the trend should be upward. The return on stockholder??™s equity for SILVER has increased from 1.84% to 2.31%, however the percentage is much more lower than the average of 12%. The overall interpretations for profitability ratios do not show a healthy prospect to SILVER. The trend for profitability ratios should be upward every year, unfortunately SILVER is now on the converse trend and management of SILVER should start to revise on the company??™s strategies in order to sustain and grow its profitability.
2. Liquidity Ratios
|Liquidity Ratios |?  |?  |
|Current Ratio |0.94 times |0.85 times |
|Quick Ratio / Acid-Test Ratio |0.85 times |0.73 times |
|Working Capital |(RM 9,046) |(RM 20,548) |
Table 2.2 (Calculation refer to Appendix B)
Current ratio shows a firm??™s ability to pay current liabilities using assets that can be converted to cash in the near term. Ration should definitely be higher than 1.0; ratios of 2 or higher are better still. The current ratio for SILVER in 2010 and 2011 is 0.85 and 0.94 times respectively. There is an increase of 9% from year 2010. Yet, the current ration for SILVER still below 1.0 ratio. Quick ratio is a tool to examine a firm??™s ability to pay current liabilities without relying on the sale of its inventories. The quick ratio for the company is 0.73 times in year 2010 and 0.85 times in year 2011. The current ratio and quick ratio for the company has increased and it may due to the amount increased under the items of current liabilities are lower than the amount in increased in current assets??™ items. Working capital helps to indicate the availability of internal funds in the company to pay its current liabilities on a timely basis and finance inventory expansion, additional accounts receivable, and a larger base of operations without resorting to borrowing or raising more equity capital. Thus, the bigger amounts of working capital, the better it is. Working capital for SILVER is at the negative of RM20,548 and RM9,046 for year 2010 and 2011 whereby this show that the company do not have sufficient funds to pay it current debts and this is strongly relate with the reason why SILVER fall under PN17 in Bursa Malaysia. Nevertheless, SILVER has reduced down the its negative working capital from RM20,548 to RM9,046 in 2011. Significantly the management team in SILVER is working very hard on reducing down the debts.3. Leverage Ratios
|Leverage Ratios |?  |?  |
|Debt-To-Assets Ratio |0.46 times |0.46 times |
|Long Term Debt-To-Capital Ratio |0.10 times |0.12 times |
|Debt-To-Equity Ratio |0.86 times |0.85 times |
|Long-Term Debt-To-Equity Ratio |0.11times |0.14 times |
|Times-Interest-Earned |1.73 times |1.54 times |
Table 2.3 (Calculation refer to Appendix B)
Debt-to-asset ratio measures the extent to which borrowed funds have been used to finance the firm??™s operations. Low fractions or ratios are better, big fractions indicate overuses of debt and greater risk of bankruptcy. SILVER??™s debt-to-asset ratio maintains at 0.46 times for 2010 and 2011 and this is relatively low and this shows that SILVER do not overuse its debt. Long-term debt-to-capital ratio is an important measure of creditworthiness and balance sheet strength, indicates the percentage of capital investment which has been financed by creditors and bondholders. Fractions or ratios below 0.25 or 25% are usually quite satisfactory since money invested by stakeholders account for 75% or more of the company??™s total capital. SILVER??™s long term debt-to-capital ratio is at 0.10 times and 0.12 times in year 2010 and 2011. This indicate around 90% of the company??™s total capital is funded by investors. Debt-to-equity ratio should usually be less than 1.0. Ratio above 1.0 signal excessive debt, lower creditworthiness, and weaker balance sheet strength. Debt-to-equity ratio for SILVER remains at average 0.86 times in 2010 and 2011 which is less than 1.0. Long-term debt-to-equity ratio shows the balance between debt and equity in the firm??™s long-term capital structure. Low ratios indicate greater capacity to borrow additional funds if needed. SILVER??™s has a very low long-term debt-to-equity ratio in 2010 (0.14 times) and 2011 (0.11 times). Lastly is the times-interest-earned ratio which measures the ability to pay annual interest charges, Lenders usually insist on a minimum ratio of 2.0, but ratios above 3.0 signal better creditworthiness. Silver??™s times-interest-earned ratio at 1.54 times and 1.73 times in 2010 and 2011 shows that the company do not have the ability to pay its annual interest charges.
4. Efficiency Ratios
|Efficiency Ratios |?  |?  |
|Asset Turnover Ratio (in times) |0.58 times |0.52 times |
|Average Collection Period (in days) |205 days |148 days |
|Inventory Turnover (in days) |24 days |34 days |
Table 2.4 (Calculation refer to Appendix B)
The asset turnover ratio shows how hard the firm??™s assets are being put to use. A high asset turnover ratio indicates that the firm is working close to capacity. It would be difficult to generate further business without additional investment. For SILVER, the asset turnover ratio has increased from 0.52 times in 2010 to 0.58 times in 2011. The increase of 10% in ratio shows that SILVER was efficient in using its total assets to create sales revenue or the company is operated in a suboptimum capacity level. Average collection period is to indicate the average length of time the firm must wait after making a sale before receiving cash. It expresses accounts receivable in terms of daily sales. On average SILVER clients pay their bills in about 148 days in 2010 and 205 days in 2011. The credit terms of trade receivables for SILVER range from 30 to 90 days. Base on the average collection period ratio, the company is not efficient in collecting debts. A comparatively high figure often indicates an inefficient collection department. Sometimes, however it is the result of a poor credit policy, whereby the firm often offers credit to customers without considering the payable ability of the customers. Inventory turnover measures how fast inventory is sold out and restocked in a year, i.e. how fast can company turnover its inventories. The performance of the company can be measured by inventory turnover ratio. The shorter the inventory turnover days, the better it is because it indicates increase in company??™s revenue and thus turnover of the inventories are getting faster. The inventory turnover ratio had a decrease of 29% (10 days) from 34 days in year 2010 to 24 days in 2011. It was result by the increase in sales by 18% from year 2010 to 2011. When sales increase, more inventories are required for the business. The increase of sales might be due to the increase in demand baked goods in the market.6. Value Chain Analysis
Value chain analysis has been defined as:
???A systematic approach to examining the development of competitive advantage. It was created by M. E. Porter in his book, Competitive Advantage (1980). The chain consists of a series of activities that create and build value. The organisation is split into primary activities and support activities.??? [
The primary and support activities that identified by Porter are shown in the following diagram: [pic]
Source: From Sources of Competitive Advantage, Third Edition by Andy.C et alThe primary and secondary activities of SILVER are as below:|Primary Activities |Secondary Activities |
|Supply Chain Management |Quality Control |
|Recipe Development and Testing |Human Resource Management |
|Mixing and Baking |Administration |
|Packaging | |
|Sales and Marketing | |
|Distribution | |
Table 3 (Full explanations refer to Appendix C)7. Key Success Factors of SILVER
This session is about discussing SILVER??™s Key Success Factors and sources of competitive advantages. Yet, we will go into details whether these competitive advantages are sustainable and how would they develop in the future. SILVER??™s KSF and sources of competitive advantages are as below:
1. Innovative in new product development
SILVER is fast in development of new innovative products. To excite its consumers, SILVER has continuously introduced variety types of bakery goods to consumers. Innovative bakery goods for SILVER include buns filling with sambal ikan bilis, spicy tuna and sardine, coconut, kaya, red bean, custard and etc. Success of this factor is due to strong R&D team in SILVER and also their expertise in bakery manufacturing. Excellent communication within the organization and passion to deliver the needs of consumers also drive the company succeeds in innovative product development.Sustainability: Sustainable. Somewhat it relies on other intangible sources of advantage such as its secret recipe which are difficult for competitors to copy and also effectiveness of organizational communications.Potential Future Development: Competitors could use technology to assist in their development of new recipe. On SILVER??™s part, it must continually put effort to gain and utilize feedback from target customers. Furthermore, attracting and retaining talented staff in product development is important to SILVER as well.
2. Branding and Marketing
SILVER is positioned as the second larger player in baked goods manufacturing industry after Gardenia. High 5 brand has been a very popular brand among Malaysian. The popular brand recognition is built by product quality and customer loyalty. SILVER is now focusing on social media and road show to promote its brand to young generation. SILVER also developed a High 5 Bread Town to educate visitors of all ages to understand the bread manufacturing process. Meanwhile it helps to promote its High 5 brand bakery goods.Sustainability: Sustainable. Customer loyalty builds by brand equity. However, the brand would dilute when the market generally shifts upward. Consumers would prefer artisanal bakery goods rather than packaged bakery goods which consider as cheap.Potential Future Development: The biggest threat comes from the major player, Gardenia. SILVER should strengthening its brand equity via heavy advertisement and maintaining its product quality.
3. Operations, Logistics and IT
SILVER is excellent integration of activities with its management system. Upgrading of its Management Information System (MIS) and install of enterprise wide system helps the company to control its inventory level. The system would assist in predicting the production level according to the sales frequency of the product. This would help to reduce waste for over producing products which could not sell well.Sustainability: Not Sustainable. Competitors would copy the implementation and integration of systems that SILVER has done. Also they could acquire a more superior system which exceeds the performance of SILVER??™s system.Potential Future Development: SILVER can benchmark against the integration of IT and efficient operations of its competitors like Gardenia and Massimo in order to improve its current systems. SILVER also needs to continually look for opportunity to enhance and build its advantage within and outside the industry.
4. Distribution channels
SILVER??™s products cover wide geographical areas in Peninsular Malaysia, including hypermarkets/supermarkets, convenience shop, grocery stores and Chinese medical halls. High exposure of its products in market helps to widespread its target customer in different geographical area.Sustainability: Not sustainable. Wide coverage of geographical are an important source of increase sales, but Gardenia and Massimo could also do the same.Potential Future Development: New entrants and existing competitors will distribute their products as where SILVER does. On the other hand, distribution cost for SILVER could be tremendous if it does not manage it well. SILVER could also distribute its products via different channel such as hospital and fitness centre where the current competitors do not have.
8. Recommendation
SILVER is an organisation which possesses different business activities (E.g. manufacturing of bakery goods; sales and distribution of telecommunication products and bakery goods; marketing and distribution agent for financial related products.) Each business activity is unique and has its own particular strategic plan to execute. Given this, each segment will approach the process of strategy implementation in a different way in order to achieve goal congruence for SILVER. For the Group to enhance shareholder value maximization, both in terms of dividend flow and capital appreciation, recommendations are given as below to improve the portfolio performance:
8.1 Benchmarking
One of the recommendations to SILVER is implementation of benchmarking, which is a method of comparing the operational performance of a company with other companies, often competitors that are considered to be the ???best in classes??™. The purpose of benchmarking is to carry out position audit in term of assessing company existing position, and provide a foundation for setting up standards of performance. Therefore, improvement in key areas and challenging but achievable target could be set in SILVER in order to enhance company profitability as well as maximize shareholders??™ wealth. .
However, there are always pros and cons in strategies implementation. Accurate information regardless internal and external is required to perform benchmarking. In other words, it is cost and time consuming which is an expense to SILVER. Besides that, management might reluctant to perform it because they are getting used to the ???comfort??™ situations. Hence, SILVER management must plan wisely in implementing benchmarking in order to overcome these problems. For instance, briefing and training are provided to employees so that they could accept it and familiar with the process.
8.2 Implementation of Activity Based Costing System
For every business segment, costs that are assigned to cost objects can be divided into two categories ??“ direct costs and indirect costs. Cost allocation is essential to distinguish between profitable and unprofitable activity. For accurate assignment of indirect costs to cost objects, cause-and-effect allocation should be used. The activity-based-costing (ABC) system can be used to assigned indirect costs to cost objects. One of the major aims of ABC system is to use only cause-and-effect cost allocation.
SILVER has a huge amount of unallocated liabilities for the business segments. This could reduce the efficiency and effectiveness of SILVER in utilizing their liabilities to finance their related assets of the business portfolio. SILVER may not able to differentiate between profitable and unprofitable business segments to the company. If the cost system in SILVER does not capture sufficiently accurately the consumption of resources by each business segments, the reported segment costs will be distorted, and there is a danger that managers may drop profitable business activities or continue operation of unprofitable business activities.
8.3 Execution of Management Audit
Management team is playing a vital role in an organisation in carry out the business operations and led the company to succeed in term of profitability and maximize the shareholders??™ value. To attain these goals, management audit can be carry out in assisting the company toward the bright direction. Management audit is concerned with the appraisal of management??™s accomplishment of organisational objectives. Management audit assesses the management functions of planning, organizing, directing and controlling; and the adequacy of management??™s decisions and actions in moving toward its targeted objectives. The main focus of the management audit is on appraising the quality of management??™s ability to manage.
SILVER is a listed company with different principal activities. Every activity is managed and organized by different management team with specific skills. The Group might suffer losses due to the inefficient management functions in the business segments. It is important for SILVER to look over the whole management functions of each business segments in order to ensure the every business segments in the company are well organize. The performance of the principal activities would contribute to the total profitability of SILVER. Thus, inefficiency in one of the business could probably reduce the profitability in the Group. Thus, this will then affect the shareholders??™ value both in terms of dividend flow and capital appreciation. By executing management audit to each business segments in SILVER, it could help the Group to monitor its progress toward achieving its specific objectives.
8.4 Capitalizing on Technology
As far as technology concerned, it is rapidly altering the nature of industries, competition, and the manner in which organisation develop and implement their strategy. Technology not only provides an organisation the opportunity of a source of competitive advantage, but technology also forms one of the forces that can drive strategic change in organisations. Therefore, superior utilization of technology is an important ingredient for strategy implementation and determining the success of an organisation.
Realizing the importance of technology, SILVER should be sure organisational objectives go beyond technological awareness. Look for obstacles that have crept into the organisation??™s policies and operating manuals and change those things that may impede technology. Inevitably, SILVER also need to revaluate the organisation proposed capital acquisition against what the market has offer, whether it is useful to the company. This is to ensure the company is well utilise its liability to finance the related assets.
9. Conclusion
Competitive advantages has increasingly been recognized and emphasized as an important priority for organisations throughout the world. Porter states that competitive advantage ???arises from discovering and implementing ways of competing that are unique and distinctive from those of rivals, and that can be sustained over time??? (cited in Sources of Competitive Advantages, 2012). Sustainable competitive advantages help the management of organizations effectively to their environment, accomplish their organizational objectives and improve their performance.
Each organisation is linked to the other by way of federations, associations, customer-supplier relationships, competitive relationships, social-cultural relationships, and political-legal mechanism for defining and controlling the nature and limits of these relationships. Organisations, therefore, must transact with these elements in order t acquire and maintain the resources that they need. Thus, environmental analysis is an important requirement of the strategic management process.
On the other hand, internal assessment and understand of company??™s financial status are curial to sustain and expand its competitive advantages. According to Louis V. Gerstner, good strategies are long on detail and short on vision. They lay out multi-year plans in great quantitative detail: the market segments the company will pursue, marker share numbers that must be achieved, expense levels that must be managed, and resources that must be applied. These plans are then reviewed regularly and become, in a sense, the driving force behind everything the company does.
The strategic evaluation and control process is essential to organisations, particularly those operating in uncertain and competitive environment where key external and internal factors often change and affect them directly. Even though these organisations may have formulated and implemented the best of strategies, the key external and internal factors may cause their strategies to become obsolete or ineffective. Competitive advantages generate greater value for the firm and its shareholders and it give a company an edge over its rivals. A sustainable competitive advantage would prevent competitors to neutralize the advantage. Firm without sustainable competitive advantage is hardly to compete and survive in the industry.10. ReferencesCowe, A., Mackerron, G. Moffat, A. and Douglas, T. 2011. Sources of Competitive Advantage,
Edinburgh Napier University, The Business School, Pearson Custom Publishing.Investopedia ULC, 2012. Competitive Advantage. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 15 January 2012]Silver Bird Portal. 2003. Silver Bird Group Berhad Website. [Online, accessed 25 March, 2003]Tee Lin Tan, 2006. Silver Bird plans to fly past storm, [press release], 16 September 2006, Available at: [Accessed

Hitler and Stalin

Dmitriy Yarenchak
History Pd. 6
7 May 2010
Stalin & Hitler
A nonaggression pact was signed between Joseph Stalin and Adolph Hitler on August 23, 1939. These two leaders ruled in World War II, as evil as they were. Joseph Stalin was the Russian leader at the time. Born on December 21, 1879 in Gori, Georgia, Stalin ruled from 1924 to 1953, his death. Adolph Hitler was the leader of Nazi Germany. Hitler was born on April 20, 1889. Hitler ruled from 1934 to 1945, and ended his rule with suicide. These two dictators have common views but different ways of doing them.
Stalin was one of the evilest dictators in the world. He killed off his own people for communism. When a teacher didn??™t say talk about communism, and how great it was, they got shot. If you didn??™t want to give the government your grain, the Cheka would take you out and shot you in the head. During Stalin??™s time, he killed around twenty million people. Another monster like Stalin was Adolph Hitler. With his famous Jew holocaust, he nearly wiped out all the Jews. He first took all the Jews and put them in ghettos. Then he took them to concentration camps, where he killed most of the Jews. Nazi officers would take an enormous group of Jews and take them to a shower room. The Jews thought they were going to take a shower, but instead of water coming out, poisonous gas came out of the faucet. Hitler burned, boiled, and starved the Jews to death. Adolph Hitler was very deceiving, and was good at convincing people to hate the Jews. Adolph Hitler killed about six million Jews during his rule. Both of these rulers were monsters of World War II.
Joseph Stalin and Adolph Hitler, in World War II, didn??™t have an alliance. Adolph Hitler, who was on the Axis alliance, broke the nonaggression pact between him and Joseph Stalin by attacking the Soviet Union and the Eastern Front.

Competitive Advantage

A) Discuss how Porter??™s competitive forces model helps businesses use information systems for competitive advantage. [25%]
B) Discuss the ongoing debate regarding the competitive advantage granted by Information Technology. [75%] Competitive Advantage is the ability gained through efficiency and resources to perform at a higher level than other competitors in the same industry or market and it usually occurs when an organisation either acquires a way to use available resources more efficiently or they have access to special resources that others do not. Here Porter??™s competitive forces model suggests that firms who have competitive advantage in the long run do better in terms of revenue growth, profitability and productivity growth, all of which ultimately turn into higher stock market valuations than their competitors. Therefore it is important for the firm to know and anticipate the factors that can affect the strategic position of the firm by applying appropriate information system to stay competitive and survive in the industry or market. Information systems can be defined as a system that collects, processes, stores and distributes information to support decision making and control in an organisation. In addition, information systems also help managers and workers analyse problems, visualise complex subjects and create new products. In Porter??™s competitive forces model, the strategic position of the firm and its strategies are determined not only by competition with its traditional direct competitors but also by four forces in the industry??™s environment which are new market entrants, substitute products, customers and suppliers. As a result, firms use information systems and technology strategies to effectively counter these five forces to gain competitive advantage by maintaining low-cost leadership, product differentiation, focus on market niche and strengthening customer and supplier intimacy (??).
In Porter??™s competitive forces model, one way for a firm to stay competitive and gain competitive advantage in the long run is to use information systems and technology to achieve low operational costs and therefore lowest prices. The classic example is Wal-Mart where an efficient customer response system automatically sends orders for new merchandise directly to suppliers as soon as consumers pay for their products. This efficient system allows Wal-Mart save money on maintaining large inventories of goods in its own warehouses. By applying information systems the firm could enjoy increased sales, revenue and profit through increased productive efficiency and thus lower prices. Firms also use information systems for product differentiation where manufacturers produce products and services that are customised and personalised to fit the customer??™s preference. In other words, differentiation looks to make a product more attractive by contrasting its unique qualities with other competing products. Successful product differentiation creates a competitive advantage for the firm as customers view these products as unique or superior and therefore it attracts more customers. Another way of obtaining competitive advantage is to focus on market niche where the use of information systems enables the firm to focus on a specific market and serve this narrow target market better than competitors. Information systems support this strategy by producing and analysing data for sales and marketing techniques. It allows the firm to analyse customer purchasing patterns, taste and preferences closely so that they can focus on advertising to smaller target markets. Lastly, strengthening customer and supplier intimacy is another strategy that can be applied by firms to gain competitive advantage. Strengthening customer and supplier intimacy through various methods allows the firm to construct strong linkages to gain both customer and supplier loyalty to the firm. This way the customers or suppliers are more likely to remain purchasing the original products rather than switching to substitutes, therefore firms can also gain competitive advantage by constructing a strong intimacy with customers and suppliers.
However, many argue that the competitive advantages strategic systems do not necessarily last long enough to ensure long-term profitability because competitors can retaliate and copy strategic systems and thus competitive advantage is not always sustainable. Furthermore, globalisation means the changes in market condition, customer expectations and technology are even more rapid and unpredictable.
Systems that were originally intended to be strategic frequently became tools for survival and are required by every firm to stay in business nowadays and consequently, successfully using information systems to achieve a competitive advantage is challenging and requires precise coordination of technology, organisations and management.


Hitler??™s Hunger For power
In the autobiography Mein Kampf , Hitler??™s struggle and hunger for power would lead to his own downfall. In his early childhood , Hitler was greatly influenced by his father??™s own determination in controlling his son??™s life. His father, as said in a Portrait in Tyranny by Edward F. Dolan, . ???was a very temperamental man and was full of pride and arrogance. And demanded the full attention of all his children. And never hesitated to beat his children with a leather strap.??? His father Alois Shicklguber who, as a adult took the name Hiedler sometimes spelled Huttler or Hitler from his step father who was a wondering miller Johann Georg Hiedler. The change of last name from Shicklguber to Hitler would have proved fateful to Adolf who probably would not have gone very far in politics with such a comical last name such as Shicklguber. As said in A Portrait in Tyranny by Edward F. Dolan, ???would Heil Schicklguber been taken as seriously throughout Europe. Since a comical Game. So the change of last name to Hitler was a great choice. Because Heil Hitler is a much more menacing chant.??? Growing up Hitler wanted to become an artist but with his fathers determination to control Adolf??™s life, Influenced him and forced him to become a civil servant. As said in Mein Kampf ??? it was his basic opinion and intention that, like himself, his son would and must become a civil servant.??? So in order to become an artist , Adolf would purposely fail his school work, In hopes that his father would cave in and let him become the artist he was urging to be. As said in his autobiography ??? I did not want to become a civil servant, No, No again??¦ I grew sick at the stomach at the thought of sitting in a office. Of being deprived of my liberty??™s and of never being a master of my own time???. And he also said ??? I thought that once my father saw how little progress I was making at the Realschule, he would let me devote myself to my dream of becoming an artist, whether he liked it or not???. But little did Adolf know that his fathers death in 1903 would effect his life in a dramatic way. Adolf dropped out of school and moved to Vienna where he sold his paintings and suffered many hardships Adolf barely had enough to eat and did not make much money selling his paintings. After a few years Adolf was forced to report to Austria to fight in the Austrian army. When he reported his run down appearance had the effect he wanted on the recruiters. He was declared ???unfit for combat and auxiliary duties, too weak. Unable to bear arms??? as said in The Life of Adolf Hitler by James Cross Gibins. But on August 3rd ,1914, Hitler requested permission to enlist in the Bavarian army, under the monarchy of Kaiser Wilhelm II. To fight against the Serbian and Russian army in a conflict that would be called world war one. The next day he received a response, as said in his autobiography, ??? With trembling hands I opened the document??¦.My request had been approved, an I was summoned to report to a Bavarian regiment. My joy and gratitude knew no bounds. A few days later I was wearing the tunic (uniform) I was not to doff until nearly six years later.??? Hitler was overjoyed and joining the army solved many of his problems. Hitler now was guaranteed a meal and shelter, and had a purpose to fight for Germany a country he admired ever since he was a little boy. In the end, his fathers determination to make him a civil servant had worked. Hitler now was fighting in WWI for the Bavarian army. This would be the beginning of Hitler??™s violence and despair for power. Throughout his service in the Bavarian army. Hitler received several awards for his bravery in action. He was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd class in 1914. In 1917 he was awarded the Military Cross 3rd class. And in 1918 he the Service Medal and his most prized medal the Iron Cross 1st class one of Germanys most prestigious medals. During his years in the military Hitler was convinced that the Jewish people were ???slackers???. And that most of them were back in Germany working in offices while the German people were dieing to protect them. Even though more then 100,000 Jews served in the German army. He was convinced that most of them were back home. As he said in Mein Kampf ??? the offices were filled with Jews. Nearly every clerk was a Jew and nearly every Jew was a clerk.??? Even further convincing him that a few select wealthy Jews were in charge of Germany??™s war production. And his hatred for the Jewish people began. Hitler also began his hatred for the communists during this time after Czar Nicolas was overthrown and the Bolsheviks had taken over Russia introducing communism. And the new communist government in Russia retreated from the war and Germany was able to focus its self on the west. But as the war went on and with U.S intervention. Germany went into turmoil and Kaiser Wilhelm fled Germany and gave up his throne to the German Empire. With this the Socialist Democratic Party took over Germany., and prepared to end the war and sign treaties with the allies. Hitler quickly blames the communist and Jews for the fall of Germany as said in The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler ??? Here the Jewish people had become really indispensable. The Spider was beginning to suck the blood out of the peoples pores. Through the was corporations, They found an instrument with which, little to finish off the national economy.??? Hitler in Nov.9th vowed to himself that he would enter politics and return Germany back to its formal glory. As said in Mein Kampf ??? that night I resolved that, if I recovered my sight, I would enter politics.??? As the years went by Hitler went back to Munich where he rejoined his regiment and served in the barracks. He came to realize that many Germans were angry at what happened, how the treaty had crippled Germany and took her into containment and not letting her regain power. Hitler as ordered by the army was sent to the University of Munich to take ???classes in civic thinking.??? There the professors found that Adolf had a powerful gift in catching the attention of the class and had them hang on his every word. Because of this Hitler was named Bildungsoffizier of his regiment, education officer. His job was to inform soldiers of political danger, anti-monarchy that ran from communism to socialism to democracy. This assignment is what really started him in politics. With this job Hitler used its power to influence the soldiers into joining a group called ???Deutsche Arbeiterpartei??? or German Workers Party. Hitler became a member of the political party and used his power of speech to gain more and more members throughout the months. In 1920 Hitler was appointed head of the German workers party and the party??™s rapid growth was all thanks to Hitler??™s speeches and ability to attract attention to the party. He became such a popular figure he established his own private army called Strumabteilung ( Storm Detachment ). They were used to protect Hitler and also to break up meeting of rival parties. Within a few years Hitler??™s party had grown from a few hundred people to more then 300,000 people. By late 1920??™s he had left the military and focused completely on maintaining the party. He rented out a office for his headquarters in Munich, planned bigger meeting and got enough money to buy a small bankrupt newspaper, the violently Anti-Semitic Volkisher Beohachter, which ended up becoming the Party??™s official newspaper. With this Hitler developed a banner that would attract the attention to the party. Many members submitted several ideas on what the banner should look like and the symbol of the party should be. Eventually he settled on the swastika. Known as a broken or twisted cross. And arrived at the final design of the flag with each part having a important meaning to him and the party. The red solid field color represented the socialistic ideas behind the party. The White circle in the middle symbolized his nationalist hopes for Germany. And the swastika which would become a sign of terror for Europe in the future. Would represent his mission to struggle for Germanys over the inferior people around her. In 1923 Hitler had finally Replaced Anton Drexler and become undisputed leader. And changed the party??™s name to Nationalsozialistiche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or the National Socialist German Workers Party. And now Hitler used this power to expand even further out of the Munich and expand all over Germany. As more and more people joined the Nazi Party. And with fear many states and territories of Germany outlawed HitlerJugend or Hitler young. In order to stop and or slow down the spread of his ideas. But he refused to let that stop him ,he used propaganda and his speeches to gain more notice . After a few months Hitler had spread his party throughout Bavaria. Now he intended to head towards Berlin. In Berlin he used more propaganda to gain popularity and gain votes into the parliament and gained two hundred and eighty eight seats in the Reichstag. Making the Nazi party the most popular and influential party in Germany. And shortly after on January 30, 1933 Hitler had was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany and the Third Reich as promised was born. Hitler was filled with joy. As said in his autobiography ??? I am not ashamed to say that , overcome with rapturous enthusiasm, I fell on my knees and thanked heaven for granting me the good fortune of making my dream become a reality???. And began his terror upon the Jewish population. First by banning them from education and jobs in the government. Then he labeled them as said in his autobiography to roman catholic leaders ??? nothing but pernicious enemies of the State and the Church, and therefore I intend to exclude them from academic life and such professions as medicine an law???. Hitler also ordered the burning of non-German writers, Which included many works from great poets, philosophers and novelists. Hitler condemned them as ??? intellectual filth???. And used nationalism and fear as a base for his speeches and campaign. To encourage Germans of this and told them that the Jews are taking over and that they were part of a master race and embedded that idea into the minds of the German people. Also Placed the Nuremberg laws which striped Jews from there citizenship and were not allowed to vote or own land. Placed anti-Jewish propaganda and encouraged Germans to boycott Jewish business. As said in his autobiography ??? Deutiche mehrt guch kauif nicht bei Juden??? or ???Germans defend yourselves, Do not buy from Jews.??? And as said in his autobiography ??? I make these demands, not because I am power hungry , but because without iron leadership the party will within a short time cease to be what it was supposed to be, a national socialist German workers party, not a western association???, and German believed his lies. Germans glorified him and referred to him as Fuhrer or Father, as their liberator and hero. He did as promised to his supporters. He made worker conditions better, Improved the life??™s of the German citizens. Created Superhighway systems and Volkswagen Company was born, even brought attention to Germany by hosting the 1936 Olympics and showing German engineering to the world, making Germany a showcase to marvel at for its many improvements since the war. But Hitler did not forget his main goal as said in his autobiography ???to expand Germany and provide its population with more land???. And in order to do so he greatly increased the number of his military. Increased the Luftwaffe or German air force and Germanys submarine fleet with the consent of the English government. Within time Hitler??™s party had spread into Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia. Also Austrian Nazis had staged a take over and assassinated the Chancellor. Austria under the leadership of Austrian Nazis was declared unstable and requested the help of Germany to re-stabilize its government. which gave Hitler the excuse he needed to invade Austria without violating the peace treaty. He responded as said in his autobiography ??? I, myself, as Fuhrer and Chancellor, will be happy to walk on the soil of the country that is my home as a free German citizen???. As troops marched in they had no resistance and were welcomed into Austria as heroes . Days later Hitler ordered the German ministry of the Interior to draft a law for the unification of Germany and Austria. And quickly the New Austrian Chancellor accepted the law. Hitler that same day entered into Vienna and banners of the Nazi party were hung all over the Austrian capitol. And as said in his autobiography ??? now its times to refocus our strengths on Czechoslovakia???. And gained the support of Mussolini of Italy. And demanded that he could seize control of the Sudetenland because of the German influence in that area of Czechoslovakia. With permission of Great Britain and France they proclaimed a ultimatum that allowed three days for the Czech forces to withdraw and turn over that land to Germany. But this was not enough for the power hunger leader as said in this autobiography ??? On October the first I shall have Czechoslovakia where I want her! And if France and England decided to go to war over it, let them!??? With agreement with France and England to avoid war. Both countries allowed Hitler to over-run Czechoslovakia and annexed what was left of the country into Germany. Later on Hitler was outraged at the idea that a Jewish college student shot German workers in a embassy in France. And his real terror was unleashed upon the Jewish people. In Germany in November 9, 700 Jewish stores were destroyed, 76 synagogues were destroyed and 191 others were set on fire. Hundreds were killed and Thousands were arrested confiscated of there money and any valuable items. As said in his autobiography ??? in the course of my life I have often been a prophet, and have usually been ridiculed for it??? and ??? Now I will once more be a prophet: If international Jewish financiers in and out of Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the communization of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!??? Hitler forced several thousand Jews into labor camps and concentration camps to be worked to death and to help supply the German army for it??™s invasion of Poland. Hitler in order to avoid aggression with the Soviets signed the non-aggression pact. And planned the invasion of Poland and said in his autobiography ??? Poland looks like a great deal of blood??? and ??? this time we wont bring it off without violence.??? Hitler attempted to negotiate with Poland. And they warned him to honor the treaty obligations to the Poles if a conflict broke out. He refused it and massed his troops along the polish boarder for a new battle strategy ??? Blitzkrieg??? which proved very successful in the invasion of Poland and quickly took the Polish capitol of Warsaw. And Poland surrenders to the German army in Three weeks. As said in his autobiography ??? Poland will not last more then a month, with our superior Aryan army???. Hitler quickly assembled all political leaders and executed them for being inferior to the Aryan race, abolished all polish colleges and universities, and minimized the education on polish children, and Poland was annexed into the German empire. But Hitler, being a restless and power hungry leader could not wait around for the conditions in Holland, Belgium, and Luxemburg to improve for the air raids. He quickly over took the country of Denmark. And set his sights on Norway to cease control of the Northern flank from a sea attack. Even with over 20,000 British troops in Norway. Hitler ordered the non-stop air bombing raids that caused Britain to retreat and leave Norway on her own. And Norway would surrender to the German invasion soon after. As said in his speech to the German people ??? why did we succeed Because there was a man like me that did not know the word ???impossible??????. With this being said Hitler organized troops and took over the countries of Holland and Belgium. To set his sights on northern France. Little by little the German army slowed its way down into central France. Fighting off both French and British forces. On June 5th the German army had broken through the river Seine. French authorities on June 12th , declared Paris an ???open city??? and would not try to defend it militarily. And southern France which was ruled by a Vichy government would help Germany with anything they needed from workers to supplies. Hitler had now made his personal goal a success by controlling the Atlantic coast of Europe from northern Spain to Norway. And to further more enrage him Hitler was forced to fight a two front war. The soviets had ended the pact and attacked Germany. Hitler lead air-raids in Britain and had land troops fight the soviets. As said in his autobiography ??? I do not want to conquer her ( England)??? I want to come to terms with her, I want to force her to accept my friendship and to drive out the whole Jewish rabble that is agitating against me.??? Hitler continued his air-raids over the city of London, and Defeated the Royal Air force. With this now in hand he focused on The soviets and lead the successful invasion of U.S.S.R. With this Hitler used his allies Italy and Japan to establish themselves as rulers of Europe ( Germany and Italy) and Japan as ruler of Asia. This lead to the invasions of Hungry, Yugoslavia, Romania, Finland, Estonia, Latvia ,Lithuania, Bulgaria, Greece. Now took control of northern Africa controlling the entire northern coast of Africa. With all this power Hitler was determined to control more land and even further expand. But Japan had bombed a U.S port in Hawaii and the united states had entered the war with the allies. Lead the invasion of Africa to attack from the soft under belly of Hitler??™s empire. And the united states lead the successful invasion of Italy, which lead to the arrest and jailing of Benito Mussolini, and the end of Italy??™s involvement in the war. Quickly after the fall of Italy, Japan as well fell to the allies. Now German citizens were losing faith in Hitler, with raids and raids and loss of more and more territories, lead to an attempt to kill Hitler which failed. As said in his autobiography ??? I will not see the fall of my empire??? and just as that he poisoned his wife and dog and committed suicide. Germany surrenders to the allies and relinquishes all territories back to its former state. Allie powers rescue all of Germanys captives of war. In the end Hitler??™s own desire for violence and power led to his own demise, and the fall of the third Reich. Dolan, Edward. Adolf Hitler A portrait in tyranny. New York, Doff, Mead and Company,1971Giblin James, The life and death of Adolf Hitler, New York, Clarion Books, 2002Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. Landsberg Am Lech Fortress Prison: Oct.16,1924

Competitive Advantage

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2. Desirable competitor is encounraged, because it stimulate a business to move forward throught competition. In contract, undesirable competitor will have no good effect on the other. Psychic damage, harm done by one competitor to others, or distortion of the economic system will result.


Hitler olf Hitler? (German pronunciation:? [?ad?lf ?h?tl?]; 20 April 1889 ??“ 30 April 1945) was an? Austrian-born? German? politician and the leader of the? National Socialist German Workers Party? (German:? Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), commonly known as the Nazi Party. He was? Chancellor of Germany? from 1933 to 1945, and served as? head of stateas? Fuhrer und Reichskanzler? from 1934 to 1945.
A decorated veteran of? World War I, Hitler joined the precursor of the Nazi Party (DAP) in 1919, and became leader of NSDAP in 1921. He attempted a failed? coup detat? known as the? Beer Hall Putsch, which occurred at the? Burgerbraukeller? beer hall? inMunich? on November 8??“9, 1923. Hitler was imprisoned for one year due to the failed coup, and wrote his memoir, “My Struggle” (in German? Mein Kampf), while imprisoned. After his release on December 20, 1924, he gained support by promotingPan-Germanism,? anti-semitism,? anti-capitalism, and? anti-communism? with? charismatic? oratory? and? propaganda. He was appointed chancellor on January 30, 1933, and transformed the? Weimar Republic? into the? Third Reich, a? single-partydictatorship? based on the? totalitarian? and? autocratic? ideology of? Nazism.
Hitler ultimately wanted to establish a? New Order? of absolute Nazi German? hegemony? in continental Europe. To achieve this, he pursued a? foreign policy? with the declared goal of seizing? Lebensraum? (“living space”) for the? Aryan people; directing the resources of the state towards this goal. This included the rearmament of Germany, which culminated in 1939 when theWehrmacht? invaded Poland. In response, the? United Kingdom? and? France? declared war against Germany, leading to the outbreak of? World War II? in Europe.[2]
Within three years, German forces and their? European allies? had occupied most of Europe, and most of? Northern Africa, and the? Japanese forces? had occupied parts of? East? and? Southeast Asia? and the Pacific Ocean. However, with the reversal of the Nazi invasion of the? Soviet Union, the? Allies? gained the upper hand from 1942 onwards. By 1944, Allied armies had invaded German-held Europe from all sides. Nazi forces engaged in numerous violent acts during the war, including the systematic murder of as many as 17? million civilians,[3]? including an estimated six million Jews targeted in? the Holocaust? and between 500,000 and 1,500,000? Roma,[4]? added to the? Poles, Soviet civilians, Soviet prisoners of war, people with disabilities, homosexuals,? Jehovahs Witnesses, and other political and religious opponents.
In the final days of the war, during the? Battle of Berlin? in 1945, Hitler married his long-time mistress? Eva Braun? and, to avoid capture by Soviet forces, the two? committed suicide[5]? less than two days later on 30 April 1945.
While Hitler is most remembered for his central role in World War II and the Holocaust, his government left behind other legacies as well, including the? Volkswagen,[6]? the? Autobahn,[7]? jet aircraft[8]? and? rocket technology.[9]
Contents? [hide] * 1? Early years * 1.1? Ancestry * 1.2? Childhood * 1.3? Early adulthood in Vienna and Munich * 1.4? World War I * 2? Entry into politics * 2.1? Beer Hall Putsch * 2.2? Mein Kampf * 2.3? Rebuilding of the party * 3? Rise to power * 3.1? Bruning Administration * 3.2? Appointment as Chancellor * 3.3? Reichstag fire and the March elections * 3.4? “Day of Potsdam” and the Enabling Act * 3.5? Removal of remaining limits * 4? Third Reich * 4.1? Economy and culture * 4.2? Rearmament and new alliances * 4.3? The Holocaust * 5? World War II * 5.1? Early diplomatic triumphs * 5.1.1? Alliance with Japan * 5.1.2? Austria and Czechoslovakia * 5.2? Start of World War II * 5.3? Path to defeat * 5.4? Attempted assassination * 5.5? Defeat and death * 6? Legacy * 7? Religious views * 8? Attitude to occultism * 9? Health * 9.1? Syphilis * 9.2? Monorchism * 9.3? Parkinsons disease * 9.4? Other complaints * 9.5? Addiction to amphetamine * 9.6? Historians views * 10? Sexuality * 11? Family * 12? Hitler in media * 12.1? Oratory and rallies * 12.2? Recorded in private conversation * 12.3? Patria picture disc * 12.4? Documentaries during the Third Reich * 12.5? Television * 12.6? Documentaries post Third Reich * 12.7? Films and series * 12.8? Plays * 13? See also * 14? Footnotes * 15? References * 16? Further reading * 16.1? Medical books * 17? External links |
Early years
Hitlers father,? Alois Hitler, was an? illegitimate? child of? Maria Anna Schicklgruber, so his paternity was not listed on his birth certificate; he bore his mothers surname.[10][11]? In 1842,? Johann Georg Hiedler? married Maria and in 1876 Alois testified before a notary and three witnesses that Johann was his father.[12]? Despite this testimony, Alois paternity has been the subject of controversy. After receiving a “blackmail? letter” from Hitlers nephew? William Patrick Hitler? threatening to reveal embarrassing information about Hitlers family tree, Nazi Party lawyer? Hans Frank? investigated, and, in his memoirs, claimed to have uncovered letters revealing that Alois mother was employed as a housekeeper for a Jewish family in? Graz? and that the familys 19-year-old son,? Leopold Frankenberger, fathered Alois.[11]? No evidence had, at that time, ever been produced to support Franks claim, and Frank himself said Hitlers full Aryan blood was obvious.[13]? Franks claims were widely believed in the 1950s, but by the 1990s, were generally doubted by historians.[14][15]? Ian Kershaw? dismissed the Frankenberger story as a “smear” by Hitlers enemies, noting that all Jews had been expelled from Graz in the 15th century and were not allowed to return until well after Alois was born.[15]
At age 39, Alois took the surname Hitler. This surname was variously spelled? Hiedler,? Huttler,? Huettler? and? Hitler, and was probably regularized to? Hitler? by a clerk. The origin of the name is either “one who lives in a hut” (Standard German? Hutte), “shepherd” (Standard German? huten? “to guard”, English? heed), or is from the? Slavic? word? Hidlar? andHidlarcek.[citation needed]
Adolf Hitler was born at around 6:30 p.m. on 20 April 1889 at the Gasthof zum Pommer, an inn in? Braunau am Inn,? Austria??“Hungary, the fourth of six children to? Alois Hitler? andKlara Polzl.Adolf Hitler as an? infant
When he was three years old, his family relocated to Kapuzinerstrasse 5[16]? in? Passau,? Germany, where Hitler would acquire? Lower Bavarian? rather than Austrian as his lifelong native dialect.[17]? In 1894, the family relocated to? Leonding? near? Linz, then in June 1895, Alois retired to a small landholding at Hafeld near? Lambach, where he tried his hand at farming and beekeeping. During this time, the young Hitler attended school in nearby Fischlham. As a child, he played “Cowboys and Indians” and, by his own account, became fixated on war after finding a picture book about the? Franco-Prussian War? among his fathers belongings.[18]
His fathers efforts at Hafeld ended in failure, and the family relocated to Lambach in 1897. Hitler attended a Catholic school located in an 11th-century? Benedictine? cloister, where the walls were engraved in a number of places with crests containing the symbol of theswastika.[19]? It was in Lambach that the eight-year-old Hitler sang in the church choir, took singing lessons, and even entertained the fantasy of one day becoming a priest.[20]? In 1898, the family returned permanently to Leonding.
His younger brother? Edmund? died of? measles? on 2 February 1900, causing permanent changes in Hitler. He went from a confident, outgoing boy who excelled in school, to a morose, detached, sullen boy who constantly battled his father and his teachers.[21]
Hitler was attached to his mother, though he had a troubled relationship with his father, who frequently beat him, especially in the years after Alois retirement and disappointing farming efforts.[22]? Alois wanted his son to follow in his footsteps as an Austrian customs official, and this became a huge source of conflict between them.[18]? Despite his sons pleas to go to classical high school and become an artist, his father sent him to the Realschule in Linz, a technical high school of about 300 students, in September 1900. Hitler rebelled, and in? Mein Kampf? confessed to failing his first year in hopes that once his father saw “what little progress I was making at the technical school he would let me devote myself to the happiness I dreamed of.” Alois never relented, however, and Hitler became even more bitter and rebellious.
German Nationalism? quickly became an obsession for Hitler, and a way to rebel against his father, who proudly served the? Austrian government. Most people who lived along the German-Austrian border considered themselves German-Austrians, but Hitler expressed loyalty only to Germany. In defiance of the? Austrian monarchy, and his father who continually expressed loyalty to it, Hitler and his young friends liked to use the German greeting “Heil”, and sing the German anthem “Deutschland Uber Alles” instead of theAustrian Imperial anthem.[18]
After Alois sudden death on 3 January 1903, Hitlers behaviour at the technical school became even more disruptive, and he was asked to leave. He enrolled at theRealschule? in? Steyr? in 1904, but upon completing his second year, he and his friends went out for a night of celebration and drinking, and an intoxicated Hitler tore his school certificate into four pieces and used it as toilet paper. When someone turned the stained certificate in to the schools director, he “… gave him such a dressing-down that the boy was reduced to shivering jelly. It was probably the most painful and humiliating experience of his life.”[23]? Hitler was expelled, never to return to school again.
At age 15, Hitler took part in his? First Holy Communion? on? Whitsunday, 22 May 1904, at the Linz Cathedral.[24]? His sponsor was Emanuel Lugert, a friend of his late father.[25]
Early adulthood in Vienna and Munich
From 1905 on, Hitler lived a? bohemian? life in? Vienna? on an orphans pension and support from his mother. He was rejected twice by the? Academy of Fine Arts Vienna? (1907??“1908), citing “unfitness for painting”, and was told his abilities lay instead in the field of? architecture.[26]? Following the school rectors recommendation, he too became convinced this was his path to pursue, yet he lacked the proper academic preparation for architecture school:
In a few days I myself knew that I should some day become an architect. To be sure, it was an incredibly hard road; for the studies I had neglected out of spite at the Realschule were sorely needed. One could not attend the Academys architectural school without having attended the building school at the Technic, and the latter required a high-school degree. I had none of all this. The fulfillment of my artistic dream seemed physically impossible.[27]The Courtyard of the Old Residency in Munich, by Adolf Hitler, 1914
On 21 December 1907, Hitlers mother died of? breast cancer? at age 47. Ordered by a court in Linz, Hitler gave his share of theorphans benefits to his sister? Paula. When he was 21, he inherited money from an aunt. He struggled as a painter in Vienna, copying scenes from postcards and selling his paintings to merchants and tourists. After being rejected a second time by the Academy of Arts, Hitler ran out of money. In 1909, he lived in a shelter for the? homeless. By 1910, he had settled into a? house for poor working men on Meldemannstra?e. Another resident of the house,? Reinhold Hanisch, sold Hitlers paintings until the two men had a bitter falling-out.[28]
Hitler said he first became an? anti-Semite? in Vienna,[27]? which had a large Jewish community, including? Orthodox Jews? who had fled the? pogroms? in? Russia. According to childhood friend? August Kubizek, however, Hitler was a “confirmed anti-Semite” before he left? Linz.[27]? Vienna at that time was a hotbed of traditional religious prejudice and 19th century? racism. Hitler may have been influenced by the occult writings of the anti-Semite? Lanz von Liebenfels? in his magazine? Ostara; it is usually taken for granted that he read the publication (he recounts in? Mein Kampf? his conversion to anti-semitism being after reading some pamphlets) and he most likely did read it, although it is uncertain to what degree he was influenced by the anti-semitic occult work.[29]
There were very few Jews in Linz. In the course of centuries the Jews who lived there had become? Europeanised? in external appearance and were so much like other human beings that I even looked upon them as Germans. The reason why I did not then perceive the absurdity of such an illusion was that the only external mark which I recognized as distinguishing them from us was the practice of their strange religion. As I thought that they were persecuted on account of their faith my aversion to hearing remarks against them grew almost into a feeling of abhorrence. I did not in the least suspect that there could be such a thing as a systematic antisemitism. Once, when passing through the inner City, I suddenly encountered a phenomenon in a long caftan and wearing black side-locks. My first thought was: Is this a Jew They certainly did not have this appearance in Linz. I carefully watched the man stealthily and cautiously but the longer I gazed at the strange countenance and examined it feature by feature, the more the question shaped itself in my brain: Is this a German[27]
If this account is true, Hitler apparently did not act on his new belief. He often was a guest for dinner in a noble Jewish house, and he interacted well with Jewish merchants who tried to sell his paintings.[30]
Hitler may also have been influenced by? Martin Luthers? On the Jews and their Lies. In? Mein Kampf, Hitler refers to Martin Luther as a great warrior, a true statesman, and a great reformer, alongside? Richard Wagner? and? Frederick the Great.[31]? Wilhelm Ropke, writing after the Holocaust, concluded that “without any question,? Lutheranisminfluenced the political, spiritual and social history of Germany in a way that, after careful consideration of everything, can be described only as fateful.”[32][33]
Hitler claimed that Jews were enemies of the? Aryan race. He held them responsible for Austrias crisis. He also identified certain forms of? socialism? and? Bolshevism, which had many Jewish leaders, as Jewish movements, merging his antisemitism with anti-Marxism. Later, blaming Germanys military defeat in World War I on the? 1918 revolutions, he considered Jews the culprits of Imperial Germanys downfall and subsequent economic problems as well.
Hitler received the final part of his fathers estate in May 1913 and moved to? Munich. He wrote in? Mein Kampf? that he had always longed to live in a “real” German city. In Munich, he became more interested in architecture and, he says, the writings of? Houston Stewart Chamberlain. Moving to Munich also helped him escape? military service? in Austria for a time, but the Munich police (acting in cooperation with the Austrian authorities) eventually arrested him. After a physical exam and a contrite plea, he was deemed unfit for service and allowed to return to Munich. However, when Germany entered World War I in August 1914, he petitioned King? Ludwig III of Bavaria? for permission to serve in a? Bavarian? regiment. This request was granted, and Adolf Hitler enlisted in the Bavarian army.[34]
World War I
Main article:? Military career of Adolf HitlerA young Hitler (left) posing with other German soldiers
Hitler served in? France? and? Belgium? in the 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment, on the? Western Front? as a regimental? runner. He was present at a number of major battles on the Western Front, including the? First Battle of Ypres, the? Battle of the Somme, theBattle of Arras? and the? Battle of Passchendaele.[35]Hitler in the German Army, 1914, sitting at right
Hitler was twice decorated for bravery. He received the relatively common? Iron Cross, Second Class, in 1914 and Iron Cross, First Class, in 1918, an honour rarely given to a? Gefreiter.[36]? Yet because the regimental staff thought Hitler lacked leadership skills, he was never promoted to? Unteroffizier? (equivalent to a British corporal). According to Weber, Hitlers First Class Iron Cross was recommended by? Hugo Gutmann, a Jewish List adjutant, and this rarer award was commonly awarded to those posted to regimental headquarters, such as Hitler, who had more contact with more senior officers than combat soldiers.[37]
Hitlers duties at regimental headquarters gave him time to pursue his artwork. He drew cartoons and instructional drawings for an army newspaper. In 1916, he was wounded in either the groin area[38]? or the left thigh[39]? during the Battle of the Somme, but returned to the front in March 1917. He received the? Wound Badge? later that year. German historian and author,? Sebastian Haffner, referring to Hitlers experience at the front, suggests that he had at least some understanding of the military.
On 15 October 1918, Hitler was admitted to a? field hospital, temporarily? blinded? by a? mustard gas? attack. The? English? psychologist? David Lewis? and Bernhard Horstmann suggest the blindness may have been the result of a? conversion disorder? (then known as “hysteria”).[40]? In fact, Hitler said it was during this experience that he became convinced the purpose of his life was to “save Germany.” Some scholars, notably? Lucy Dawidowicz,[41]? argue that an intention to exterminate Europes Jews was fully formed in Hitlers mind at this time, though he probably had not thought through how it could be done. Most historians think the decision was made in 1941, and some think it came as late as 1942.
Hitler had long admired Germany, and during the war he had become a passionate German patriot, although he did not become a German citizen until 1932. Hitler found the war to be “the greatest of all experiences” and afterwards he was praised by a number of his commanding officers for his bravery.[42]? He was shocked by Germanyscapitulation? in November 1918 even while the German army still held enemy territory.[43]? Like many other German nationalists, Hitler believed in the? Dolchsto?legende(“dagger-stab legend”) which claimed that the army, “undefeated in the field,” had been “stabbed in the back” by civilian leaders and? Marxists? back on the? home front. These politicians were later dubbed the? November Criminals.Portrait of Adolf Hitler taken during the war
The? Treaty of Versailles? deprived Germany of various territories,? demilitarised? the? Rhineland? and imposed other economically damaging sanctions. The treaty re-created Poland, which even moderate Germans regarded as an outrage. The treaty also blamed Germany for all the horrors of the war, something which major historians such as? John Keegan? now consider at least in part to bevictors justice; most European nations in the run-up to World War I had become increasingly? militarised? and were eager to fight. The culpability of Germany was used as a basis to impose reparations on Germany (the amount was repeatedly revised under the? Dawes Plan, the? Young Plan, and the? Hoover Moratorium). Germany in turn perceived the treaty, especially Article 231 on the German responsibility for the war, as a humiliation. For example, there was a nearly total demilitarisation of the armed forces, allowing Germany only six battleships, no submarines, no air force, an army of 100,000 without conscription and no armoured vehicles. The treaty was an important factor in both the social and political conditions encountered by Hitler and his Nazis as they sought power. Hitler and his party used the signing of the treaty by the “November Criminals” as a reason to build up Germany so that it could never happen again. He also used the “November Criminals” as scapegoats, although at the? Paris peace conference, these politicians had had very little choice in the matter.
Entry into politics
Main article:? Adolf Hitlers political views
After World War I, Hitler remained in the army and returned to Munich, where he ??“ in contrast to his later declarations ??“ attended the funeral march for the murdered Bavarian prime minister? Kurt Eisner.[44]? After the suppression of the? Bavarian Soviet Republic, he took part in “national thinking” courses organized by the? Education and Propaganda Department? (Dept Ib/P) of the Bavarian? Reichswehr? Group, Headquarters 4 under Captain? Karl Mayr. Scapegoats were found in “international Jewry”, communists, and politicians across the party spectrum, especially the parties of the? Weimar Coalition.
In July 1919, Hitler was appointed a? Verbindungsmann? (police spy) of an? Aufklarungskommando? (Intelligence Commando) of the? Reichswehr, both to influence other soldiers and to? infiltrate? a small party, the? German Workers Party? (DAP). During his inspection of the party, Hitler was impressed with founder? Anton Drexlers? anti-semitic, nationalist,anti-capitalist? and anti-Marxist? ideas, which favoured a strong active government, a “non-Jewish” version of socialism and mutual solidarity of all members of society. Drexler was impressed with Hitlers oratory skills and invited him to join the party. Hitler joined DAP on 12 September 1919[45]? and became the partys 55th member.[46]? His actual membership number was 555 (the 500 was added to make the group appear larger) but later the number was reduced to create the impression that Hitler was one of the founding members.[47]? He was also made the seventh member of the executive committee.[48]? Years later, he claimed to be the partys seventh overall member, but it has been established that this claim is false.[49]A copy of Adolf Hitlers? German Workers Party? (DAP) membership card.
Here Hitler met? Dietrich Eckart, one of the early founders of the party and member of the? occult? Thule Society.[50]? Eckart became Hitlers mentor, exchanging ideas with him, teaching him how to dress and speak, and introducing him to a wide range of people. Hitler thanked Eckart by paying tribute to him in the second volume of? Mein Kampf. To increase the partys appeal, the party changed its name to the? Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei? or? National Socialist German Workers Party? (abbreviated NSDAP).
Hitler was discharged from the army in March 1920 and with his former superiors continued encouragement began participating full time in the partys activities. By early 1921, Hitler was becoming highly effective at speaking in front of large crowds. In February, Hitler spoke before a crowd of nearly six thousand in Munich. To publicize the meeting, he sent out two truckloads of party supporters to drive around with? swastikas, cause a commotion and throw out leaflets, their first use of this tactic. Hitler gained notoriety outside of the party for his rowdy,? polemic? speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians (includingmonarchists, nationalists and other non-internationalist? socialists) and especially against Marxists and Jews.
The NSDAP[51]? was centred in Munich, a hotbed of German nationalists who included Army officers determined to crush Marxism and undermine the Weimar Republic. Gradually they noticed Hitler and his growing movement as a suitable vehicle for their goals. Hitler traveled to Berlin to visit nationalist groups during the summer of 1921, and in his absence there was a revolt among the DAP leadership in Munich.
The party was run by an executive committee whose original members considered Hitler to be overbearing. They formed an alliance with a group of socialists from? Augsburg. Hitler rushed back to Munich and countered them by tendering his resignation from the party on 11 July 1921. When they realized the loss of Hitler would effectively mean the end of the party, he seized the moment and announced he would return on the condition that he replace Drexler as party chairman, with unlimited powers. Infuriated committee members (including Drexler) held out at first. Meanwhile an anonymous pamphlet appeared entitled? Adolf Hitler: Is he a traitor, attacking Hitlers lust for power and criticizing the violent men around him. Hitler responded to its publication in a Munich newspaper by suing for? libel? and later won a small? settlement.
The executive committee of the NSDAP eventually backed down and Hitlers demands were put to a vote of party members. Hitler received 543 votes for and only one against. At the next gathering on 29 July 1921, Adolf Hitler was introduced as? Fuhrer? of the National Socialist German Workers Party, marking the first time this title was publicly used.
Hitlers beer hall oratory, attacking Jews,? social democrats,? liberals, reactionary monarchists,? capitalists? and communists, began attracting adherents. Early followers includedRudolf Hess, the former air force pilot? Hermann Goring, and the army captain? Ernst Rohm, who eventually became head of the Nazis? paramilitary organization? the SA (Sturmabteilung, or “Storm Division”), which protected meetings and attacked political opponents. As well, Hitler assimilated independent groups, such as the? Nuremberg-based? Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft, led by? Julius Streicher, who became? Gauleiter? of? Franconia. Hitler attracted the attention of local business interests, was accepted into influential circles of Munich society, and became associated with wartime General? Erich Ludendorff? during this time.Drawing of Hitler, 1923
Beer Hall? Putsch
Main article:? Beer Hall Putsch
Encouraged by this early support, Hitler decided to use Ludendorff as a front in an attempted? coup? later known as the “Beer Hall? Putsch” (sometimes as the “Hitler? Putsch” or “Munich? Putsch”). The Nazi Party had copied? Italys? fascists? in appearance and had adopted some of their policies, and in 1923, Hitler wanted to emulate? Benito Mussolinis? “March on Rome” by staging his own “Campaign in Berlin”. Hitler and Ludendorff obtained the clandestine support of? Gustav von Kahr, Bavarias? de facto? ruler, along with leading figures in the? Reichswehrand the police. As political posters show, Ludendorff, Hitler and the heads of the Bavarian police and military planned on forming a new government.
On 8 November 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting headed by Kahr in the? Burgerbraukeller, a large beer hall in Munich. He declared that he had set up a new government with Ludendorff and demanded, at gunpoint, the support of Kahr and the local military establishment for the destruction of the Berlin government.[52]? Kahr withdrew his support and fled to join the opposition to Hitler at the first opportunity.[53]? The next day, when Hitler and his followers marched from the beer hall to the? Bavarian War Ministry? to overthrow the Bavarian government as a start to their “March on Berlin”, the police dispersed them.? Sixteen NSDAP members? were killed.[54]
Hitler fled to the home of? Ernst Hanfstaengl? and contemplated suicide; Hanfstaengls wife Helene talked him out of it. He was soon arrested for? high treason.? Alfred Rosenberg? became temporary leader of the party. During Hitlers trial, he was given almost unlimited time to speak, and his popularity soared as he voiced nationalistic sentiments in his? defence speech.? A Munich personality thus became a nationally known figure. On 1 April 1924, Hitler was sentenced to five years imprisonment at? Landsberg Prison. Hitler received favoured treatment from the guards and had much fan mail from admirers. He was pardoned and released from jail on 20 December 1924, by order of the Bavarian Supreme Court on 19 December, which issued its final rejection of the state prosecutors objections to Hitlers early release.[55]? Including time on remand, he had served little more than one year of his sentence.[56]
On 28 June 1925, Hitler wrote a letter from? Uffing? to the editor of? The Nation? in? New York City? complaining of the length of his sentence at “Sandberg a. S.” [sic], where he claimed his privileges had been extensively revoked.[57]
Mein KampfDust jacket? of? Mein Kampf
Main article:? Mein Kampf
While at Landsberg, he dictated most of the first volume of? Mein Kampf? (My Struggle, originally entitled? Four and a Half Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity, and Cowardice) to his deputy? Rudolf Hess.[56]? The book, dedicated to Thule Society memberDietrich Eckart, was an autobiography and an exposition of his ideology.? Mein Kampf? was influenced by? The Passing of the Great Race? by? Madison Grant, which Hitler called “my Bible.”[58]? It was published in two volumes in 1925 and 1926, selling about 240,000 copies between 1925 and 1934. By the end of the war, about 10? million copies had been sold or distributed (newlyweds and soldiers received free copies). The? copyright? of? Mein Kampf? in Europe is claimed by the Free State of Bavaria and scheduled to end on 31 December 2015. Reproductions in Germany are authorized only for scholarly purposes and in heavily commented form.
Rebuilding of the partyAdolf Hitler (left), standing up behind? Hermann Goring? at a Nazi rally in? Nuremberg, 1928
At the time of Hitlers release, the political situation in Germany had calmed and the economy had improved, which hampered Hitlers opportunities for agitation. Though the “Hitler? Putsch” had given Hitler some national prominence, Munich remained his partys mainstay.
The NSDAP and its organs were banned in Bavaria after the collapse of the putsch. Hitler convinced? Heinrich Held, Prime Minister of Bavaria, to lift the ban, based on representations that the party would now only seek political power through legal means. Even though the ban on the NSDAP was removed effective 16 February 1925,[59]? Hitler incurred a new ban on public speaking as a result of an inflammatory speech. Since Hitler was banned from public speeches, he appointed? Gregor Strasser, who in 1924 had been elected to theReichstag, as? Reichsorganisationsleiter, authorizing him to organize the party in northern Germany. Strasser, joined by his younger brother? Otto? and? Joseph Goebbels, steered an increasingly independent course, emphasizing the socialist element in the partys programme. The? Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Gauleiter Nord-West? became an internal opposition, threatening Hitlers authority, but this faction was defeated at the? Bamberg Conference? in 1926, during which Goebbels joined Hitler.
After this encounter, Hitler centralized the party even more and asserted the? Fuhrerprinzip? (“Leader principle”) as the basic principle of party organization. Leaders were not elected by their group, but were rather appointed by their superior, answering to them while demanding unquestioning obedience from their inferiors. Consistent with Hitlers disdain for democracy, all power and authority devolved from the top down.
A key element of Hitlers appeal was his ability to evoke a sense of offended national pride caused by the Treaty of Versailles imposed on the defeated? German Empire? by the Western Allies. Germany had lost economically important territory in Europe along with its colonies, and in admitting to sole responsibility for the war had agreed to pay a huge? reparations? bill totaling 132? billion? marks. Most Germans bitterly resented these terms, but early Nazi attempts to gain support by blaming these humiliations on “international Jewry” were not particularly successful with the electorate. The party learned quickly, and soon a more subtle propaganda emerged, combining antisemitism with an attack on the failures of the “Weimar system” and the parties supporting it.
Having failed in overthrowing the Republic by a coup, Hitler pursued a “strategy of legality”: this meant formally adhering to the rules of the Weimar Republic until he had legally gained power. He would then use the institutions of the Weimar Republic to destroy it and establish himself as dictator. Some party members, especially in the paramilitary SA, opposed this strategy; Rohm and others ridiculed Hitler as “Adolphe Legalite”.
Rise to power
Main article:? Adolf Hitlers rise to power
Nazi Party Election Results |
Date | Votes | Percentage | Seats in? Reichstag | Background |
May 1924 | 1,918,300 | 6.5 | 32 | Hitler in prison |
December 1924 | 907,300 | 3.0 | 14 | Hitler is released from prison |
May 1928 | 810,100 | 2.6 | 12 | ?  |
September 1930 | 6,409,600 | 18.3 | 107 | After the financial crisis |
July 1932 | 13,745,800 | 37.4 | 230 | After Hitler was candidate for presidency |
November 1932 | 11,737,000 | 33.1 | 196 | ?  |
March 1933 | 17,277,000 | 43.9 | 288 | During Hitlers term as Chancellor of Germany |
Bruning AdministrationAn? NSDAP? meeting in December 1930, with Hitler in the centre
The political turning point for Hitler came when the? Great Depression? hit Germany in 1930. The Weimar Republic had never been firmly rooted and was openly opposed by right-wing conservatives (including monarchists), communists and the Nazis. As the parties loyal to the democratic,? parliamentary republic? found themselves unable to agree on counter-measures, their? grand coalition? broke up and was replaced by a minority cabinet. The new Chancellor,? Heinrich Bruning? of the Roman Catholic? Centre Party, lacking a majority in parliament, had to implement his measures through the presidents? emergency decrees. Tolerated by the majority of parties, this rule by decree would become the norm over a series of unworkable parliaments and paved the way forauthoritarian? forms of government.[60]
The? Reichstags initial opposition to Brunings measures led to premature elections in September 1930. The republican parties lost their majority and their ability to resume the grand coalition, while the Nazis suddenly rose from relative obscurity to win 18.3% of the vote along with 107 seats. In the process, they jumped from the ninth-smallest party in the chamber to the second largest.[61]
In September??“October 1930, Hitler appeared as a major defence witness at the trial in? Leipzig? of two junior? Reichswehr? officers charged with membership of the Nazi Party, which at that time was forbidden to? Reichswehr? personnel.[62]? The two officers,? Leutnants? Richard Scheringer and Hans Ludin, admitted quite openly to Nazi Party membership, and used as their defence that the Nazi Party membership should not be forbidden to those serving in the? Reichswehr.[63]When the Prosecution argued that the Nazi Party was a dangerous revolutionary force, one of the defence lawyers,? Hans Frank? had Hitler brought to the stand to prove that the Nazi Party was a law-abiding party.[63]? During his testimony, Hitler insisted that his party was determined to come to power legally, that the phrase “National Revolution” was only to be interpreted “politically”, and that his Party was a friend, not an enemy of the? Reichswehr.[64]? Hitlers testimony of 25 September 1930 won him many admirers within the ranks of the officer corps.[65]
Brunings measures of budget consolidation and financial? austerity? brought little economic improvement and were extremely unpopular.[66]? Under these circumstances, Hitler appealed to the bulk of German farmers, war veterans and the middle class, who had been hard-hit by both the inflation of the 1920s and the unemployment of the Depression.[67]
In September 1931, Hitlers niece? Geli Raubal? was found dead in her bedroom in his Munich apartment (his half-sister? Angela? and her daughter Geli had been with him in Munich since 1929), an apparent suicide. Geli, who was believed to be in some sort of romantic relationship with Hitler, was 19 years younger than he was and had used his gun. His nieces death is viewed as a source of deep, lasting pain for him.[68]
In 1932, Hitler intended to run against the aging President? Paul von Hindenburg? in the scheduled? presidential elections. His 27 January 1932 speech to the Industry Club inDusseldorf? won him, for the first time, support from a broad swath of Germanys most powerful industrialists.[69]? Though Hitler had left Austria in 1913 and had formally renounced his Austrian citizenship on 7 April 1925, he still had not acquired German citizenship and hence could not run for public office. For almost seven years Hitler was stateless and faced the risk of deportation from Germany.[70]? On 25 February 1932, however, the Nazi interior minister of? Brunswick? (the Nazis were part of a right-wing coalition governing the state) appointed Hitler as administrator for the states delegation to the? Reichsrat? in Berlin. This appointment made Hitler a citizen of Brunswick.[71]? In those days, the states conferred citizenship, so this automatically made Hitler a citizen of Germany as well and thus eligible to run for president.[72]
The new German citizen ran against Hindenburg, who was supported by a broad range of? nationalist, monarchist, Catholic,? republican? and even social democratic parties. Another candidate was a? Communist? and member of a fringe right-wing party. Hitlers campaign was called “Hitler uber Deutschland” (Hitler over Germany).[73]? The name had a double meaning; besides a reference to his dictatorial ambitions, it referred to the fact that he campaigned by aircraft.[73]? Hitler came in second on both rounds, attaining more than 35% of the vote during the second one in April. Although he lost to Hindenburg, the election established Hitler as a realistic alternative in German politics.[74]
Appointment as Chancellor
| This section? needs additional? citations? for? verification.
Please help? improve this article? by adding? reliable references. Unsourced material may be? challenged? and? removed.? (April 2009) |
Meanwhile, Papen tried to get his revenge on Schleicher by working toward the Generals downfall, through forming an intrigue with the camarilla and? Alfred Hugenberg, media mogul and chairman of the DNVP. Also involved were? Hjalmar Schacht,? Fritz Thyssen? and other leading German businessmen and international bankers.[75]? They financially supported the Nazi Party, which had been brought to the brink of bankruptcy by the cost of heavy campaigning. The businessmen wrote letters to Hindenburg, urging him to appoint Hitler as leader of a government “independent from parliamentary parties” which could turn into a movement that would “enrapture millions of people.”[76]Hitler from a window of the Chancellory receiving an ovation at his inauguration asChancellor, 30 January 1933
Finally, the president reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler Chancellor of a coalition government formed by the NSDAP and DNVP. However, the Nazis were to be contained by a framework of conservative cabinet ministers, most notably by Papen as? Vice-Chancellor? and by Hugenberg as Minister of the Economy. The only other Nazi besides Hitler to get a portfolio was? Wilhelm Frick, who was given the relatively powerless interior ministry (in Germany at the time, most powers wielded by the interior minister in other countries were held by the interior ministers of the states). As a concession to the Nazis, Goring was named? minister without portfolio. While Papen intended to use Hitler as a figurehead, the Nazis gained key positions.
On the morning of 30 January 1933, in Hindenburgs office, Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor during what some observers later described as a brief and simple ceremony. His? first speech as Chancellor? took place on 10 February. The Nazis seizure of power subsequently became known as the? Machtergreifung? or? Machtubernahme.
Reichstag fire and the March elections
Having become Chancellor, Hitler foiled all attempts by his opponents to gain a majority in parliament. Because no single party could gain a majority, Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to dissolve the? Reichstag? again. Elections were scheduled for early March, but on 27 February 1933, theReichstag? building was set on fire.[77]? Since a? Dutch independent communist? was found in the building, the fire was blamed on a communist plot. The government reacted with the? Reichstag? Fire Decree? of 28 February which suspended basic rights, including? habeas corpus. Under the provisions of this decree, the? German Communist Party? (KPD) and other groups were suppressed, and Communist functionaries and deputies were arrested, forced to flee, or murdered.
Campaigning continued, with the Nazis making use of paramilitary violence, anti-communist hysteria, and the governments resources for propaganda. On election day, 6 March, the NSDAP increased its result to 43.9% of the vote, remaining the largest party, but its victory was marred by its failure to secure an absolute majority, necessitating maintaining a coalition with the DNVP.[78]
“Day of Potsdam” and the Enabling ActParade of SA troops past Hitler ??“ Nuremberg, November 1935
| This section? does not? cite? any? references or sources.
Please help? improve this article? by adding citations to? reliable sources. Unsourced material may bechallenged? and? removed.? (April 2009) |
On 21 March, the new? Reichstag? was constituted with an opening ceremony held at Potsdams garrison church. This “Day of Potsdam” was staged to demonstrate reconciliation and unity between the revolutionary Nazi movement and “Old Prussia” with its elites and virtues. Hitler appeared in a tail coat and humbly greeted the aged President Hindenburg.
Because of the Nazis failure to obtain a majority on their own, Hitlers government confronted the newly elected? Reichstag? with the? Enabling Act? that would have vested the cabinet with legislative powers for a period of four years. Though such a bill was not unprecedented, this act was different since it allowed for deviations from the constitution. Since the bill required a ? majority in order to pass, the government needed the support of other parties. The position of the Centre Party, the third largest party in theReichstag, turned out to be decisive: under the leadership of? Ludwig Kaas, the party decided to vote for the Enabling Act. It did so in return for the governments oral guarantees regarding the? Churchs? liberty, the concordats signed by German states and the continued existence of the Centre Party.
On 23 March, the? Reichstag? assembled in a replacement building under extremely turbulent circumstances. Some SA men served as guards within while large groups outside the building shouted slogans and threats toward the arriving deputies. Kaas announced that the Centre Party would support the bill with “concerns put aside,” while Social Democrat? Otto Wels? denounced the act in his speech. At the end of the day, all parties except the Social Democrats voted in favour of the bill. The Communists, as well as some Social Democrats, were barred from attending. The Enabling Act, combined with the? Reichstag? Fire Decree, transformed Hitlers government into a legal dictatorship.
Removal of remaining limits
??? | At the risk of appearing to talk nonsense I tell you that the Nazi movement will go on for 1,000 years! … Dont forget how people laughed at me 15 years ago when I declared that one day I would govern Germany. They laugh now, just as foolishly, when I declare that I shall remain in power! | ??? |
??”Adolf Hitler to a British correspondent in Berlin, June 1934[79] |
With this combination of legislative and? executive? power, Hitlers government further suppressed the remaining political? opposition. After the rapid dissolution of the? Communist Party? the? Social Democratic Party? (SPD) were banned, leading to a 10 May court order that all property and assets be seized. The? Steel Helmets? (World War One veterans) on 26 April were placed under Hitlers leadership with guarantee they would exist as an autonomous organization to be called upon as an auxiliary police force. On 2 May, stormtroopers ransacked and destroyed every trade union office in the country and 4 May the Christian Trade Unions and all other unions vowed allegiance to Hitler. TheState Party? dissolved on June 28. The 60 year old? Peoples Party? officially dissolved on 4 July. The Catholic Church was given no choice but to support Hitler after dissolution of their? Centre Party? on 5 July. The right wing? German Nationalist Front? was forced to incorporate its small paramilitaries into the Nazi SA and dissolved per the “Friendship Agreement”. Finally, on 14 July, the Nazi Party was declared the? only legal party? in Germany as big business and the army stood on the sidelines.[80]
Hitler used the SA paramilitary to push Hugenberg into resigning, and proceeded to politically isolate Vice-Chancellor Papen. Because the SAs demands for political and military power caused much anxiety among military and political leaders, Hitler used allegations of a plot by the SA leader? Ernst Rohm? to purge the SAs leadership during theNight of the Long Knives. As well, opponents unconnected with the SA were murdered, notably? Gregor Strasser? and former Chancellor? Kurt von Schleicher.[81]In 1934, Hitler became Germanys president under the title Fuhrer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Chancellor of the Reich).
President? Paul von Hindenburg? died on 2 August 1934. Rather than call new elections as required by the? constitution, Hitlers cabinet passed a law proclaiming the presidency vacant and transferred the role and powers of the head of state to Hitler as? Fuhrer und Reichskanzler? (leader and chancellor). This action effectively removed the last legal remedy by which Hitler could be dismissed ??“ and with it, nearly all institutional checks and balances on his power.
On 19 August a plebiscite approved the merger of the presidency with the chancellorship winning 84.6% of the electorate.[82][83]? This action technically violated both the constitution and the Enabling Act. The constitution had been amended in 1932 to make the president of the High Court of Justice, not the chancellor, acting president until new elections could be held. The Enabling Act specifically barred Hitler from taking any action that tampered with the presidency. However, no one dared object.
As head of state, Hitler now became Supreme Commander of the armed forces. When it came time for the soldiers and sailors to swear the traditional loyalty oath, it had been altered into an oath of personal loyalty to Hitler. Normally, soldiers and sailors swear loyalty to the holder of the office of supreme commander/commander-in-chief, not a specific person.[84]
In 1938,? two scandals? resulted in Hitler bringing the Armed Forces under his control. Hitler forced the resignation of his War Minister (formerly Defense Minister),? Werner von Blomberg, after evidence surfaced that Blombergs new wife had a criminal past. Prior to removing Blomberg, Hitler and his clique removed army commander? Werner von Fritsch? on suspicion of? homosexuality.[85]? Hitler replaced the Ministry of War with the? Oberkommando der Wehrmacht? (High Command of the Armed Forces, or OKW), headed by the pliant GeneralWilhelm Keitel. More importantly, Hitler announced he was assuming personal command of the armed forces. He took over Blombergs other old post, that of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, for himself. He was already Supreme Commander by virtue of holding the powers of the president. The next day, the newspapers announced, “Strongest concentration of powers in Fuhrers hands!”
Third Reich

Competitive Analysis in the Hospitality Industry

| |[pic] |
| |Do a Competitive Analysis of Your Firm |
| |[pic]Your assignment is to use all of your work in the course to date to complete a plan for your company by answering these 4 questions: |
| |Identify the KSFs that you believe drive value in your industry and why. (If your company produces goods and services for more than one industry, choose the one |
| |you most wish to explore.) |
| |Customer service. This is what the hotel business is all about. If we do not take care of our customers ??“ they will not come back. |
| |Customer engagement and open communication. We need to listen to our customers and see what they want so we can deliver what they are looking for. In order to get|
| |new business in ??“ we need to pay attention to particular requirements that they may have so we can win the business and service it correctly and have them come |
| |back to us again. |
| |Product quality. The appearance and maintenance of a bedrooms, cleanliness, food quality, and beverage quality. All are crucial in order to deliver outstanding |
| |guest experiences. |
| |Efficient operations. In a hotel there are several operating departments all focused on a particular area e.g. Accommodation; Maintenance; Kitchen; Bar & |
| |Restaurant; Reception. Each department must work well in its own right and in harmony with other departments so overall guest experiences that interact with each |
| |department are flawless. |
| |Progressive revenue management strategies. Bedroom rates change constantly. There are several segments into which bedroom business falls that have there own |
| |individual strategies that must be monitored and amended in order to maximise on the yield that can be achieved from each segment. |
| |Sales & Marketing driven. Focus on business development. The hotel industry must continuously focus on bringing new business in and retaining current business. If|
| |this pipeline is disrupted, the viability and existence of the hotel is compromised. |
| |Financial and Process Control orientated. Financial controls, process management and accurate reports are crucial in order to maintain business flow and |
| |profitability of any hotel entity. |
| | |
| |Identify the KSFs your company has achieved. |
| |Customer service. We are fanatical about this. We send every guest that has stayed with is an evaluation form so we are constantly evaluating our service and |
| |product delivery on a guest by guest basis. All feedback is shared with all and follow up if required is immediate to the customer and within the departments if |
| |we did not delivery as we should to find out what happened and put measures into place to stop it from happening again. |
| |Customer engagement and open communication. With the above program and others to engage the customer or potential client and report back feedback immediately we |
| |have developed a culture of immediate responsiveness from engagements with all categories of customers. |
| |Product quality. We have a quality assurance programme in place for all departments that focus on each ones core deliverables. Senior management make sure that |
| |personnel and tools/resources are in place to support these endeavours. There are audit formats and metrics in place for gauging product quality in each area. |
| |Efficient operations. Communication is the key with my role as General Manager overseeing all departments. Along with e-mail. We have daily briefings in person |
| |with all key personnel on duty and weekly staff meetings between the department heads to review all operational matters. In turn, I meet monthly with the Managing|
| |Director of the company. |
| |Progressive revenue management strategies. As rate strategy is a very fluid and constantly changing landscape we have formally structured meetings every day on |
| |the above. We have several tools and key software programmes at our disposal so we can make the right decisions with immediate responsiveness with the best and |
| |most current data available. We have metrics and industry information from competitors to bench our performance and see if we are getting our market share and |
| |growing it. |
| |Sales & Marketing driven. Focus on business development. Each sales and marketing manager has structured performance management plans in place that are evaluated |
| |weekly and the strategies for attaining revenue in each segment they are focused on are revised each week if necessary. Appropriate resources to assist them such |
| |as marketing budget spends are allocated then. |
| |Financial and Process Control orientated. We have KPI??™s (Key Performance Indicators) in place for every margin/expense and labour line of our business. We receive|
| |daily/weekly and monthly Profit & Statements for every facet of the business from individual revenue lines down to Net profit so we know exactly how we are |
| |performing on a day to day basis. All expense and labour lines are meticulously controlled so we are not overspending or wasting resources. |
| | |
| |Identify your companys core competencies. Explain the link between your companys KSFs and core competencies. |
| |Niche Brand Positioning. Both hotels in our group are boutique hotels with brand unique design and style elements that gives our Sales & Marketing KSF a unique |
| |position to sell in the market. |
| |Human Resource Management System. We spend a lot of time and money on training the right people who are hired for our organization and developing them within the |
| |organization to deliver memorable guest experience. This is linked to our Customer service; customer engagement; product quality; and efficient operations KSF??™s. |
| |Operational Know How/Specialists in Fields. We hire the best and brightest that are specialised in the functions they are employed to manage. We invest in their |
| |ongoing development to keep them current and motivated. We demand very high standards/results in return. This is linked to Efficient operations; progressive |
| |revenue management strategies; sales & marketing and financial KSF??™s. |
| |Management Systems. We have systems in place throughout the organization that are influenced by global hotel management companies and the best practice of our |
| |seasoned executives. These systems are linked to all our KSF??™s. |
| |Culture. Is one of immense pride and of ???winners??™ delivering excellence in all areas. Our boutique identity with unique hotel designs differentiates us from the |
| |competition. This is linked to all KSF??™s and permeates the organization. |
| | |
| |Looking into the future, you may or may not have the right KSFs and competencies to guarantee continued success. |
| |Are your current core competencies appropriate for success in your industry Why or why not (Draw on your five forces analysis for this question.) |
| |If not, which KSFs and competencies should you work to develop, and how might you acquire them |
| |Yes. Our KSF??™s and core competencies are appropriate for success in our industry. |
| |Even though we have the threat of a new entrant in the marketplace at our 4 star classification. We are an established business that has year on year growth even |
| |with a recession and over capacity of bedroom place in the marketplace. We are a market leader in key metrics such as average rate and revpar. Our revenue |
| |management KSF drives this. |
| |There is a constant threat of substitutes with luxury apartments in Dublin offering short term lets. But our quality of operations and guest service give us the |
| |edge in winning new business and retaining current. We are innovative in offering more inclusive packages for guest with more included food and beverage offerings|
| |along with standard accommodation offerings. Our sales and marketing KSF drives this. |
| |Even faced with increased pricing from suppliers we have capitalized on our volume from two hotels to keep pricing down and shopping around for the best value. |
| |With areas such as energy. We have instituted energy teams in each hotel to track and keep our energy consumption controlled. Our Financial and process KSF drives|
| |this. |
| |Pressure from customers we manage well by being responsive and adding value where needed to seal a piece of business and effective yield management based on |
| |supply and demand in the market place. We effective sell the benefits our brand and what we offer to justify price structures. All of KSF??™s do their part in |
| |driving this. |
| |Potential rivals are a constant part of life in the hotel industry and by being ontop of our game in all areas of the business we will keep ahead of our |
| |competitors regardless of how much money they spend upgrading their products and efforts to try and steal our business. |
| | |
| |Thank You. |
| | |
| |Edward Sweeney |
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Is America Truly ???The Land of the Free??? America isn??™t ???The Land of the Free???, because it stands for Amerce inconsistent balance of Truth and Falsehood, District of Columbia molested the 1st constitution in 1871 and made another one what you see today, also the 13th and 14th Amendments was ???never??? ratified. This land that??™s called America was name after an Italian man named Amerigo Vespucci. So technically we can??™t even call ourselves Americans. When our foremothers and forefathers came to this land to escape from the British rule they strived to have something better. However with having being the first Caucasians to successfully kill off the Moorish-Americans (Native-Americans) along with making treaties and enslaving other Moorish-Americans (African-Americans or Blacks) there was some ???Truth mixed with Falsehood???. In 1776 July 4th not only was this Nation or Incorporation was established but our constitution was created along with amerce. What amerce means to punish by imposing a fine not fixed by statute also to punish by inflicting any discretionary or arbitrary penalty. Therefore in a sense, they (our founding foremothers and forefathers) came to this land to do business! Another reason why this Land isn??™t a Freeland is for the simple fact that after our founding fathers made the constitution it for the purpose that the government wouldn??™t take control of us. Well obviously there wishes were not fulfilled. Approximately 95 years later in 1871 February 21st the congress or U.S. officials did what the enemy does, which is steal, kill, and destroy they molested or altered The Constitution ???for??? the United States of America into The Constitution ???of??? the United States of America. This resulted in the District of Columbia becoming an Incorporation and a government within a ???government???. Along giving the ownership of the constitution to them when in the beginning it was rightfully ours and it was made so that they wouldn??™t screw anything up. What people fail to realize that there is a significant discrepancy between the words ???for??? and ???of???. The word for is symbolizing a republic where the people have a voice while on the other hand the word of represents a democracy, which isn??™t the same if not the total opposite. Third reason why we aren??™t living in a Freeland is the fact that the 13th and 14th Amendments are still taking place now! The 13th amendment